23 May

PhD Defence Vanessa Lea Freund

Supervisors: Dr. Jill Lobbestael, Prof. Dr. Frenk P.M.L. Peeters

Keywords: Grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, daily life

"Still waters run deep: Below narcissism’s surface"

Narcissism includes two sub-dimensions, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Grandiose narcissism tends to be defined by outward self-esteem, superiority and manipulative behaviour, and vulnerable narcissism by neuroticism, negative affectivity and contingent self-esteem. Stable narcissistic traits can be viewed as the foundation, but recent conceptualisations suggest that narcissism also includes narcissistic states involving momentary cognitions, behaviours and emotions. The dissertation aimed to gain a deeper understanding of narcissism's nuanced manifestations by exploring these narcissistic traits and states. Overall, the findings showed that individuals with narcissistic traits have a general awareness of possessing socially undesirable traits; self- and other-compassion can be enhanced, even in individuals with narcissistic traits; grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic states vary throughout the day; individuals with narcissistic traits switch in and out of narcissistic states; and there are broad patterns, as well as individuality, within narcissistic state experiences among individuals who would traditionally be characterised as grandiose or vulnerable.

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