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Archive: ITEM Cross-Border Impact Assessment

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Cross-border Impact Assessment 2021

Introduction video


This year we put together an introduction video in which researchers of the ITEM Cross-Border Impact Assessment provide information about the dossiers of 2021.

Take a look!

ITEM Cross-border Impact Assessment 2021 - dossier pitches



The Summaries are available English, German, Dutch and French

ITEM Cross-Border Impact Assessment 2021 - Summaries  
Our most prominent results are presented in an infographic 
ITEM - Cross-Border Impact Assessment 2021 - Infographic  

Go to the Cross-Border Portal   




Dossier 1: Ex-ante study on the cross-border effects of the EU’s proposed Minimum Wage Directive (TEIN study)
Together with partners of the Transfrontier Euro-Institut Network (TEIN), ITEM has studied the potential cross-border effects of the proposed Directive on adequate minimum wages in the European Union. The dossier assesses the possible impact of creating a (binding) common European framework for minimum wages on cross-border regions and their inhabitants. The geographical focus will be on several (cross-)border regions adjacent to Germany – namely those which it shares with Belgium and the Netherlands, the one shared with France, and the one shared with Poland. 
Dossier 2: Ex-post analysis into the future of working from home for cross-border workers post-COVID-19
During the COVID-19 crisis, working from home has increasingly become the norm, with homeworking encouraged or even required, including for frontier workers. It will likely continue in some form after the crisis, as both employees and employers alike have recognised its advantages. Political pleas are also rising for making homeworking structural. However, for cross-border workers (partial) homeworking has consequences for the applicable tax and social security regulations due to the physical shift in workplace. Following the temporary suspension of these rules during the crisis, this dossier analyses what effects a formal homeworking policy may have on cross-border workers and their employers in the future. 
Dossier 3: The effects of national Corona crisis management on cross-border crisis management in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine (follow-up study) 
Following up on the 2020-study (in collaboration with TEIN), the impact of the Coronavirus crisis has also been examined as part of this year’s Cross-Border Impact Assessment. This dossier focuses on the impact on Euregional crisis management. More precisely, it assesses the consequences of national crisis management on cooperation in the cross-border region in the realm of the various local and regional crisis teams. The report is based on a study carried out in 2020/2021 in the framework of the INTERREG project Pandemric. ITEM, together with colleagues from Leiden University and the Ockham IPS Institute, investigated the cross-border management of the crisis, in particular with regard to the tension between national governance and Euregional needs. 
Dossier 4: Is the EU Patients’ Rights Directive fit for providing well-functioning healthcare in cross-border regions? An ex-post assessment 
What amounts to well-functioning healthcare in cross-border regions? Systematic discrepancies between the health systems of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, combined with limited European legislation regarding cross-border healthcare, provide ground for hindrances to develop when it comes to access to healthcare in the border regions. Considering the extent and severity of hindrances between these three countries, this dossier analyses if the EU Patients’ Rights Directive is fit for this purpose. 


Cross-border Impact Assessment 2020 - completed

The Summaries are available English, German, Dutch and French
ITEM Cross-Border Impact Assessment 2020 - Summaries  

Our most prominent results are presented in a set of two infographics 
ITEM - Cross-Border Impact Assessment 2020 - Infographics  
The main infographic shows prominent results of the Cross-Border Impact Assessment 2020.
Additionally we included an infographic this year, which is complimentary to dossier 1: "The impact of the Corona crisis on cross-border regions"

Go to the Cross-Border Portal  


Dossier 1: The impact of the Corona crisis on cross-border regions (TEIN study*)
The research focuses on the question what effects the national approach to crisis response and cross-border coordination has had on cross-border regions. To what extent did the focus on national figures, national capacities in healthcare and national measures influence the situation? How intensive was the cross-border coordination and what consequences did it have for the development and combating of the crisis?
Dossier 2: Implementation and possible effects of the Dutch Strategy on Spatial Planning and the Environment (NOVI) from a Euregional perspective
The Dutch government is developing a Strategic Outlook on the Quality of Life in the Netherlands (Nationale Omgevingsvisie (NOVI)), which provides a long-term vision on the future and development of the quality of life (leefomgeving) in the country. To what extent does this strategy contribute to sustainable development in the Euroregions around the Netherlands? And to what extent are the citizens concerned being involved in this process?
Dossier 3: Ex-ante evaluation of the (potential) cross-border impact of the structural reinforcement programme to end coal-based power generation in Germany (Kohleausstieg) (Concept)
In Germany, a law is about to enter into force to end coal-based electricity generation. This could have major consequences for the economy around the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, where the economy is still very dependent on coal production for the generation of electricity. The intention is to conduct an ex ante assessment of the potential impact of planned structural investments in the Rhineland (“Rheinisches Revier”), i.e. the Rhenish area of (former) coalfields, on the cross-border region as such.
Dossier 4: The (im)possibility of cross-border training budgets to tackle long-term unemployment?
To counter shortages on the labour market, it may be necessary to work in another country. The same applies in the future when people will be unemployed due to the corona crisis. Targeted training can greatly facilitate placement. However, it is difficult to finance training for a new job in a cross-border setting because it is unclear which country and which employment a gency is responsible for this.
Dossier 5: The cross-border effects of the proposed German "basic pension" (Grundrente)
New legislation is about to come into force in Germany whereby every resident is entitled to a so-called basic pension. This measure is meant to counter poverty among the elderly. It is still unclear what this means in detail for frontier workers working in Germany.
Dossier 6: The cross-border effects of decentralisation in social security: case study on Dutch youth care
Since 2015, youth care in the Netherlands has been (relocated) in(to) the hands of municipalities. As a result, youth care is no longer covered by the EU system that coordinates social security. Therefore, a Dutch family living in Germany but working, going to school and visiting the family doctor in the Netherlands, may run into difficulties if there is a need for youth care.

*For the first time, ITEM worked together with partners from the Transfrontier Euro-Institut Network (TEIN) in order to examine the possible cross-border effects of this EU initiative for four different cross-border regions across Europe. In addition to mapping the impact on these regions’ citizens, businesses and society, this dossier offers a unique opportunity to test and further develop the methodology of the ITEM Cross-Border Impact Assessment throughout other parts of Europe in close collaboration with the TEIN partners.

Cross-border Impact Assessment 2019 - completed

Go to the Cross-Border Portal  


Dossier 1: The Qualifying Foreign Taxpayer Obligation (“90% rule”): An ex-post impact assessment
This year’s impact analysis of the Dutch Qualifying Foreign Taxpayers’ Obligation (kwalificerend buitenlandse belastingplicht, KBB), the so-called “90%-rule”, shows no evidence of an effect on the numbers and flows of cross-border workers to the Netherlands for the period 2012-2017. This Dossier provides an illustrative overview of the diverse population of cross-border workers in the Netherlands and its evolution in relation to labour and residential mobility.
Dossier 2: Cross-border effects of the Dutch Act on the Standardisation of Legal Status of Public Servants (Wnra)
The new Dutch Public Servants (Standardization of Legal Status) Act (WNRA), effective from January 2020, will have serious consequences for certain groups of cross-border workers, working in two (or more) countries. This Dossier provides an ex ante assessment of the law’s effects regarding their social security and pension situations – for example, for university staff doing home office when living in a different country than their State of employment. It also highlights the need for more information on part of the legislator.
Dossier 3: Ex ante evaluation of the proposed European Cross-Border Mechanism (ECBM)
This Dossier provides an ex-ante assessment of the proposed European Cross-Border Mechanism (ECBM). As initiated by the EU Commission, the ECBM aims to facilitate cross-border cooperation on projects and services by resolving conflicts between national legal provisions in cross-border regions. This thorough analysis assesses the proposal’s merits and potential drawbacks in relation to concrete examples along the German-Dutch and Dutch-Flemish border regions.
Dossier 4: Governance under the new Interreg Regulatio 2021-2027
The ‘Governance’-objective under the new Interreg regulation for 2021-2027 earmarks at least 15% budget for enhancing institutional capacity. This Dossier provides an ex-ante assessment of what ‘Governance’ means to different stakeholders in programme areas in the Benelux. A key debate concerns whether the new objective can and should be realised through projects or whether it requires innovative approaches to cooperation to transform programmes into a more strategic ‘framework building’ for cross-border cooperation.
Dossier 5: Cross-border monitoring: a real challenge
Data collection for cross-border monitoring has been a much-debated topic in recent years. As an exploratory study, this Dossier problematises how data collection is focused on the national level and it often ends at the border. Rather than assessing concrete effects, it critically reviews the increasing market for cross-border data. Recognising the available possibilities for advanced data processing, there is a plea for more (support and coordination of) transnational cooperation for making cross-border data broadly and publicly available
Dossier 6: Cross-border effects of the EU Nitrates Directive and manure quotas between NL/DE
This Dossier offers an ex-post assessment of the EU Nitrates Directive setting quotas for use of nitrates and manure. It discusses the Directive’s effects on current practices in cross-border manure trade and possible fraud at the Dutch-German border. Both States have exhibited implementation problems. From the (limited) available data no clear effect of the EU standards could be observed on sustainable development. As improvements in soil/water quality over time were hardly visible, so-called German ‘problem zones’ instead exhibit an excessive increase in nitrate levels close to the NL border.

Cross-border Impact Assessment 2018 - completed

Cross-border Impact Assessment 2017 - completed

In March 2018, questions were raised regarding Dossier 2 of the ITEM Cross-border Impact Assessment 2017.

We can imagine that such questions may exist elsewhere and in this regard we would like to share our response publically.

Please find our statement regarding 'Annex 1.3 Scenario 3: Single sole earner’ of Dossier 2 in the document below (only available in Dutch):

Cross-border assessment 2016 (completed)



Dossier 1A: Dossier 1A: Tax Treaty Germany-Netherlands: Labour (EN)
Dossier 1A: Belastingverdrag Nederland-Duitsland: Arbeid (NL)
Dossier1B: Dossier 1B: Tax Treaty Netherlands-Germany: Pension (EN)
Dossier 1B: Belastingverdrag Nederland-Duitsland Pensioen (NL)
Dossier 2: Dossier 2: Recognition of Professional Qualifications (EN)
Dossier 2: Erkenning van beroepskwalificaties (NL)
Dossier 3: Dossier 3: Cross-border cooperation: A study of INTERREG programmes in the Dutch border regions (EN)
Dossier 3: Grensoverschrijdende samenwerking: INTERREG-programma’s aan de Nederlandse grens (NL)
Dossier 4: Dossier 4: Social security: illness and disability (EN)
Dossier 4: Sociale zekerheid: Ziekte en arbeidsongeschiktheid (NL)
Dossier 5: Dossier 5: The Qualifying Foreign Tax Obligation of Article 7.8 Dutch Income Tax Act and EU Law (EN)
Dossier 5: De kwalificerende buitenlandse belastingplicht van art. 7.8 IB en het EU-recht (NL)
Dossier 6: Dossier 6: Proposal for a Directive amending Directive 96/71/EC (COM (2016) 128 final) (EN)
Dossier 6: Voorstel voor een richtlijn tot wijziging van Richtlijn 96/71/EG COM(2016) 128 (NL)
Dossier 7: Dossier 7: Flexibilization of the Old-Age Pension Commencement Date Act (EN)
Dossier 7: Wet flexibilisering ingangsdatum AOW (NL)
Dossier 8: Dossier 8: Grenzüberschreitende Arbeitsvermittlung: UWV (DE)
Dossier 8: Grensoverschrijdende arbeidsbemiddeling: UWV (NL)
Dossier 8: Cross-border Employment Services: Effects of Mandate and Capacities of the Dutch National Employment Service UWV (EN)
Dossier 9: Dossier 9: Cross-border train travel - Fourth Railway Package (EN)
Dossier 9: Grensoverschrijdend treinverkeer - Vierde Spoorwegpakket (NL)
Dossier 10: Dossier 10: The new toll system for HGV in Belgium: Impact on the border region (EN)
Dossier 10: het nieuwe tolsysteem voor HVG's in België: Impact op de grensregio (NL)