Full course description
ICT development, e.g., remote sensing, IoT, lead to an enormous growth of available data for analysis. To integrate this heterogeneous or multimodal data, data fusion approaches are used. Data fusion can be understood as a framework for the joint analysis of data from multiple sources (modalities) that allows achieving information/knowledge not recoverable by the individual ones.
During this course, several approaches to data fusion will be discussed, such as:
- Low level data fusion, where data fusion methods are directly applied to raw data sets for exploratory or predictive purposes. A main advantage is the possibility to interpret the results directly in terms of the original variables. An example of a low level data fusion is measuring the same signal or phenomena with different sensors, in order to discover the original one. Traditionally, PCA based methods are used for this type of data fusion.
- Mid level data fusion, where data fusion operates on features extracted from each data set. The obtained features are then fused in a “new” data set, which is modeled to produce the desired outcome. A main advantage is that the variance can be removed in the features extraction step, and thus the final models may show better performance. An example of a mid level data fusion is extracting numerical features from an image, and building a decision model based on those features.
- High level data fusion, also known as decision fusion, where decisions (models outcome) from processing of each data set are fused. It is used when the main objective is to improve the performance of the final model and reach an automatic decision. Several methods can be used for high-level DF, such as weighted decision methods, Bayesian inference, Dempstere Shafer’s theory of evidence, and fuzzy set theory. There is a link between high-level data fusion and ensemble methods.
- Federated learning. Federated learning enables multiple parties jointly train a machine learning model without exchanging the local data. In case of federated learning, we can talk about model fusion.
Desired prior knowledge: statistics and basic machine learning