Use It or Lose It
Full course description
In this module the two key topics are the musculoskeletal system and the relationship between physical (in)activity and health.
This module will focus on basic anatomy, histology, physiology and function of muscles, bone and joints. The main topics that will be addressed include structure and function of muscles, bone and joints as well as their cooperation in movements and the different types of contraction (concentric, eccentric and isometric). Muscle metabolism including energy production and substrate utilisation, and neuromuscular and hormonal control will also be subject of this module. This will serve as a stepping stone to exercise physiology and collaboration of different body systems in physical activity and sport. The relationship between the cardiovascular, pulmonary and musculoskeletal systems will be elucidated, with particular focus on the integration towards physical activity and exercise training
Physical (in)activity and health
In this part of the module the relationship between physical activity and health will be elucidated. The importance of physical activity for (maintenance of) health status of healthy people as well as for those who are at risk for developing disease conditions (e.g. overweight, high body mass index, disturbed glucose metabolism, hypertension etcetera) will be addressed. A number of disease conditions that are beneficially affected by physical activity will be addressed in this module, with emphasis on the patho-physiological processes how physical activity and exercise training influence these disease conditions.
For a better understanding of the aforementioned issues exercise physiology will be taught thoroughly, both the acute response during exercise but also the adaptation to regular physical training. Moreover, the translation of training adaptations to health improvement will be part of the module.
Much attention will be paid to norms and guidelines for recommended quantities and qualities of physical activity and fitness. Several measurement methods, including calorimetry, pedometers, questionnaires, dairies will be assessed on their validity and reliability. We will go into the recommendations on physical activity for improvement and maintenance of health and fitness. It is of importance to know what kinds of physical activity intervention programs are available, but also to assess how valid the effectiveness of these programs is. And do they yield what they claim?
Going more in depth on physical activity in this module substrate and energy utilisation will be discussed and assessed practically.
From a policy point of view it is important to learn about epidemiologic data on physical activity and sports participation behaviour of Western populations, particular of the Dutch. How did this develop through the last century and which factors influence this behaviour. We will go into the impact of alterations of physical activity and sports participation on morbidity and mortality risks as well as on experienced physical and mental health. The students will obtain insight in epidemiological data on physical activity and sports participation data. Also, in this module the determinants of life style behaviour alterations will be studied. Finally, substrate and energy utilisation in rest and during physical activity, both in theory and practice, will be addressed.
Knowledge and insight
The student will obtain knowledge of and insight in: § Anatomy, histology and physiology of muscles and skeleton § Exercise physiology and energy metabolism § Performance (endurance, strength, speed, flexibility, coordination) § Training and adaptation (muscles, skeleton, metabolism) § The relationship between (excessive) physical (in-)activity, health and health risks § Determinants of physical activity and fitness for susceptibility of diseases § (Interpretation of) descriptive data of the relationship between physical activity and health § Basic principles of substrate and energy utilisation § Basic principles of physical activity measurements § Basic principles of performance measurements (endurance, strength, speed, flexibility, coordination) § Validity and reliability of measuring substrate and energy utilisation, physical activity and performance
Application of knowledge and insight
After completion of this module the student will be able to: § Apply the relationship between the musculoskeletal system and movements/physical activity § Translate the contribution of the musculoskeletal system and physical activity to health status § Interpret statistical data about health and disease and indicate which factors and action are important to influence these data § apply the recommendations of physical activity and exercise training in prevention and rehabilitation of chronic disease conditions § provide information about the value of different determinants of health § provide information about the recommended physical activity for improving health and fitness
After completion of this module the student should have developed a critical attitude towards: § The contribution of physical (in)activity for health status and maintenance § The recommendations of physical activity and exercise training for health status and maintenance § The recommendations § The validity and reliability of the various measurement tools to assess quantity and quality of physical activity
After this module the student will be able to: § Adequately report the execution of a practical assignment § Adequately report the results of practical assignments § Adequately report to and inform others about the recommended quality and quantity of physical activity for health status and maintenance § Discuss on a scientific level about the results of a practical assignment
The student will be able to: § Measure energy utilisation in rest § Interpret basically the measurement of energy utilisation during exercise § Assess the validity and reliability of the various measurement methods § Assess the usefulness of these measurements § Measure physical activity of a person via various measurement tools § Interpret the physical activity measurements via various measurement tools adequately
The list below comprises an outline of books, journal articles and websites that are considered important in this module. However, from a scientific point of view we encourage to use other books and references as well. Most books are available in the university library. Anatomy and physiology - Marieb EN, Hoehn K. Human Anatomy and Physiology, (8th Edition). Pearson Education Limited, 2016. - Platzer W. Color Atlas of Human Anatomy. Volume 1: Locomotor system, (7th Edition). Thieme Verlag, 2014. - Schünke et al. Thieme atlas of Anatomy: general anatomy and musculoskeletal system, (2nd Edition). Thieme 2015. - Silverthorn DU. Human Physiology, an integrated approach, (7th edition). Pearson International Edition, 2016. - Sobotta J, Putz R, Pabst R. Sobotta atlas of human anatomy: musculoskeletal system, internal organs, head, neck, neuroanatomy (15th Edition). Urban & Fischer/Elsevier, 2011. Epidemiology - De Vet HCW, Terwee CB, Mokkink LB, Knol DL. Measurement in Medicine. Cambridge, University Press, 2011. Exercise physiology - Kenney WL, Wilmore JH, Costill DL. Physiology of Sport and Exercise, (6th edition). Champaign (IL), Human Kinetics Publishers, 2015. - McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, (8th edition). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015. Exercise, physical activity and health - American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, (7th edition). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013. - Kenney WL, Wilmore JH, Costill DL. Physiology of Sport and Exercise, (6th edition). Champaign (IL), Human Kinetics Publishers, 2015. - McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, (8th edition). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015. Measurement of physical activity, fitness and performance - American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, (7th edition). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013. - Morrow JW, Disch JG, Mood DP, Kang M. Measurement and Evaluation in Human Performance, (5th edition). Champaign (IL), Human Kinetics Publishers, 2016. Physical activity and exercise training in the prevention and rehabilitation of chronic diseases - Ehrman J, Gordon P, Visich P, Keteyian S. Clinical Exercise Physiology, (3rd Edition). Champaign (IL), Human Kinetics, 2013.