Digestion and Defence I
Full course description
In this block, the topics are: 'digestive system', 'microbiology' and 'immunology'. The main focus of this block are the digestion process and the involving the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large bowel, as well as the liver, gall bladder and pancreas. The main processes involved include regulation of food intake, digestion and absorption of nutrients, which require cooperation between all these organs. Problems with the functioning of the digestive tract can result in symptoms such as reflux, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Our digestive tract is continuously exposed to a myriad of microbes, either from our own microbiota or potential pathogens. Therefore, the second topic of this block concerns microbiology to get acquainted with mechanisms of bacteria, virusses and parasites. An adequate immune system is required for the defence against infectious pathogens. How the immune system is constituted and how it functions is the third block topic. The focus of this block will be mainly on normal physiology and as such it is the basis for year 2 where the focus will be on the pathophysiology. In addition attention will be paid to internationalization in the context of health care world-wide and on scientific aspects such as statistics, epidemiology, medical history and the diversity of professional medical literature.
- Anatomy and histology of the oral cavity, teeth, tongue, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, gall bladder and pancreas.
- Hormonal and neural regulation of food intake and digestion, including the cephalic, gastric and intestinal phase.
- Composition of food, digestion of proteins, carbohydrates and fat and the absorption of the digested nutrients, minerals, vitamins, electrolytes and water.
- Motility of the digestive tract, such as gastric emptying, peristalsis of the small and large intestine, and mechanisms of diarrhea and constipation.
- At the organ level, the following physiological functions will be discussed: swallowing, secretion and composition of saliva, secretion of gastric juice and protection against gastric acid, endocrine and exocrine function of the pancreas, function of bile and the liver functions such as bile production, biotransformation and the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
- Knowledge of structure, classification and replication of bacteria and viruses, mechanisms of and resistance against some antibiotics, composition and function of the commensal microbiota, and examples of gastrointestinal pathogens causing diarrhea.
- Classes and functions of leukocytes, the inflammatory process, induction of fever.
- The innate and adaptive immune system and the cellular and humoral immune response in the context of infection and vaccination.
- Performing and interpreting diagnostic skills of the mouth, throat, neck, of the abdomen and lab skills on faces, blood and injection; knowledge of imaging techniques.
- Scientific skills, e.g. application of relevant statistical tests, using diverse professional medical information and knowledge of the history of infectious diseases and its treatment.
- Orientation on health care from a international, world-wide view.
- Digestive system (authors: Smith & Morton)
- Medical microbilogy (authors: Murray; Rhosental. Pfaller
- Basic mmunology (authors: Abbas; Lichtman; Pillai)