Universiteit Maastricht

Personal profile page

Prof. Dr. R Goebel (Rainer)


Full Professor for Cognitive Neuroscience

Faculty / Department
  • Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht Brain Imaging Centre
  • Psychology and Neuroscience, Cognitive Neuroscience

Phone number: +31433884014

Location: 1.005 OX55

Prof. Dr. R  Goebel

Professional Career History

After his study of psychology and computer science in Marburg, Germany, (1983-1988), Rainer Goebel has worked on artificial neural networks of visual processing. He did his PhD at the Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany, (1990-1994) under Prof. Dirk Vorberg developing a large-scale oscillatory neural network model of scene segmentation, selective attention, and shape recognition.


In 1993 he received the Heinz Maier Leibnitz Advancement award in cognitive science sponsored by the German minister of science and education for a publication on the binding problem and in 1994 he received the Heinz Billing award from the Max Planck society for developing a software package for the creation and simulation of neural network models. From 1995-1999 he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt/Main in the Dept. of Neurophysiology under Prof. Wolf Singer where he founded the functional neuroimaging group. In 1997/1998 he was a fellow at the Berlin Institute for Advanced studies ("Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin").


Since January 2000, he is a full professor for Cognitive Neuroscience in the psychology department of Maastricht University. He is also a member of the board of governors of the new F.C. Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging in Nijmegen, Netherlands. He is the director of the Maastricht Brain Imaging Centre (M-Bic) , which celebrated its opening in spring 2005. In both centers, he is working on combining functional MRI and EEG/MEG, DTI, ICA and Granger Causality in order to noninvasively measure both the topographic distribution and the precise timing of neuronal processes in humans and to study anatomical as well as functional connectivity, both hypothesis driven as well as data driven.


From 2006 on, he is the Research Director of the FPN Maastricht Research Institute together with Peter de Weerd. He is the developer of the fMRI data analysis software tool “brainvoyager” and “turbo brainvoyager” (see brainvoyager.com for more details).

Research Projects

Recent Funding

2012 – 2014
Main applicant of Dutch NWO grant for medium-size investment 2011/2012 “Advanced multi-channel RF-coils for sub-millimetre functional brain imaging on ultrahigh field magnetic resonance (MR) scanners” .

2012 - 2014

European Union (EU) grant (7th Framework): “Adaptive Brain Computations” (ABC), a Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN), Industrial partner (Brain Innovation).

2011 – 2016
ERC Advanced Investigators grant (European Union 7th Framework) “Cracking the columnar-level code in the visual hierarchy: Ultra high-field functional MRI, neuro-cognitive modelling and high-resolution brain-computer interfaces”.

2010 – 2013
EU Grant "Deployment of Brain-Computer Interfaces for the Detection of Consciousness in Non-Responsive Patients" (DECODER) PI of sub-project “Exploring fNIRS”

2010 – 2012
Dutch Grant, NWO Middle-size investment: "A Virtual Reality laboratory for psychological and neuroscientific investigations of normal and deviant human behaviour (Co-Applicant).

2009 – 2012
EU Grant, Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN): "Methods in Neuroimaging" (NeuroPhysics) (Co-Applicant)

2009 – 2012
EU Grant, Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN): “Coordination for optimal decisions in dynamic environments” (Codde), Industrial partner (Brain Innovation)

2007 – 2013
Dutch Grant, “SmartMix” program (mix of academic and industrial institutions): “BrainGain”, BCI research PI of project: “fMRI-based neurofeedback”



  • Goebel, R. (2012). BrainVoyager – Past, present, future. NeuroImage, [Jan 2012 Epub ahead of print].
  • Peters, J.C., Reithler, J., Goebel, R. (2012). Modeling invariant object processing based on tight integration of simulated and empirical data in a Common Brain Space. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 6, 12.
  • Zimmermann, J., Roebroeck, A., Uludag, K., Sack, A., Formisano, E., Jansma, B., De Weerd, P., Goebel, R. (2012). Network-based statistics for a community driven transparent publication process. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 6, 11.
  • Senden, M., Goebel, R., Deco, G. (2012). Structural connectivity allows for multi-threading during rest: The structure of the cortex leads to efficient alternation between resting state exploratory behavior and default mode processing. Neuroimage, 60, 2274-2284.
  • Seehaus, A.K., Roebroeck, A., Chiry, O., Kim, D.S., Ronen, I., Bratzke, H., Goebel, R., Galuske, R.A. (2012). Histological Validation of DW-MRI Tractography in Human Postmortem Tissue. Cerebral Cortex. [Feb 2012 Epub ahead of print].
  • de Borst, A.W., Sack, A.T., Jansma, B.M., Esposito, F., de Martino, F., Valente, G., Roebroeck, A., di Salle, F., Goebel, R., Formisano, E. (2012). Integration of "what" and "where" in frontal cortex during visual imagery of scenes. Neuroimage, 60, 47-58.
  • Bien, N., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2012). Extinguishing Extinction: Hemispheric Differences in the Modulation of TMS-induced Visual Extinction by Directing Covert Spatial Attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 809-818.
  • de Graaf, T.A., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2012). Feedforward and quick recurrent processes in early visual cortex revealed by TMS? NeuroImage. [Oct 2011 Epub ahead of print].
  • Born, J.M., Martens, M.J., Rutters, F., Lemmens, S.G., Goebel, R., Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. (2012). High HPA-axis activation disrupts the link between liking and wanting with liking and wanting related brain signaling. Physiology & Behavior, 105, 321-324.
  • Frost, M. & Goebel, R. (2012). Measuring structural-functional correspondence: Spatial variability of specialised brain regions after macro-anatomical alignment. NeuroImage, 59, 1369-1381.
  • van de Ven, V., Jans, B., Goebel, R., De Weerd, P. (2012). Early human visual cortex encodes surface brightness induced by dynamic context. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 367-377.
  • Jacobs, C., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2012). Visual awareness suppression by pre-stimulus brain stimulation; a neural effect. NeuroImage, 59, 616-624.
  • Bien, N., ten Oever, S., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2012). The sound of size: crossmodal binding in pitch-size synesthesia: a combined TMS, EEG and psychophysics study. NeuroImage, 59, 663-672.
  • Schuhmann, T., Schiller, N.O., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2012). Speaking of which: dissecting the neurocognitive network of language production in picture naming. Cerebral Cortex, 22, 701-709.


  • Zimmermann*, J., Goebel*, R., De Martino, F., van de Moortele, P.F., Feinberg, D., Adriany, G., Chaimov, D., Shmuel, A., Uğurbil, K. & Yacoub, E. (2011). Mapping the organization of axis of motion selective features in human area MT using high-field fMRI. PLoS One,, 6, e28716. * = authors contributed equally
  • Subramanian, L. Hindle, J.V., Johnston, S., Roberts, M.V., Husain, M., Goebel, R., Linden, D. (2011). Real-Time Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Neurofeedback for Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 16309-16317.
  • de Graaf, T.A., de Jong, M.C., Goebel, R., van Ee, R., Sack, A.T. (2011). On the functional relevance of frontal cortex for passive and voluntarily controlled bistable vision. Cerebral Cortex, 21, 2322-2331.
  • Esposito, F. & Goebel, R. (2011). Extracting functional networks with spatial independent component analysis: the role of dimensionality, reliability and aggregation scheme. Current Opinion in Neurology, 24, 379-385.
  • De Martino, F., Esposito, F., van de Moortele, P.F., Harel, N., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Ugurbil, K., Yacoub, E. (2011). Whole brain high-resolution functional imaging at ultra high magnetic fields: an application to the analysis of resting state networks. NeuroImage, 57, 1031-1044.
  • Born, J.M., Lemmens, S.G., Martens, M.J., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. (2011). Differences between liking and wanting signals in the human brain and relations with cognitive dietary restraint and body mass index. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94, 392-403.
  • Jiang, F., Dricot, L., Weber, J., Righi, G., Tarr, M.J., Goebel, R., Rossion, B. (2011). Face categorization in visual scenes may start in a higher order area of the right fusiform gyrus: evidence from dynamic visual stimulation in neuroimaging. Journal of Neurophysiology, 106, 2720-2736.
  • Roebroeck A, Formisano E, Goebel R (2011). The identification of interacting networks in the brain using fMRI: model selection, causality and deconvolution. NeuroImage, 58, 296-302.
  • Maus, B., van Breukelen, G.J., Goebel, R., Berger, M.P. (2011). Optimal design for nonlinear estimation of the hemodynamic response function. Human Brain Mapping [Epub ahead of print].
  • Rossion, B., Dricot, L., Goebel, R., Busigny, T. (2011). Holistic face categorization in higher order visual areas of the normal and prosopagnosic brain: toward a non-hierarchical view of face perception. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 4, 225.
  • Maus, B., van Breukelen, G.J., Goebel, R., Berger, M.P. (2011). Optimal design of multi-subject blocked fMRI experiments. NeuroImage, 56, 1338-1352.
  • Johnston, S., Linden, D.E., Healy, D., Goebel, R., Habes, I., Boehm, S.G. (2011). Upregulation of emotion areas through neurofeedback with a focus on positive mood. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 44-51.
  • De Martino, F., de Borst, A.W., Valente, G., Goebel, R. & Formisano, E. (2011). Predicting EEG single trial responses with simultaneous fMRI and relevance vector machine regression. NeuroImage, 56, 826-836.
  • Valente, G., De Martino, F., Esposito, F., Goebel, R., Formisano, E. (2011). Predicting subject-driven actions and sensory experience in a virtual world with relevance vector machine regression of fMRI data. NeuroImage, 56, 651-661.
  • Goffaux, V., Peters, J., Haubrechts, J., Schiltz, C., Jansma, B., & Goebel, R. (2011). From coarse to fine? Spatial and temporal dynamics of cortical face processing. Cerebral Cortex, 21, 467-476.


  • Goebel, R., Zilverstand, A. & Sorger, B. (2010). Real-time fMRI-based brain–computer interfacing for neurofeedback therapy and compensation of lost motor functions. Imaging in Medicine,, 2, 407-414.
  • Pullens P, Roebroeck A, Goebel R. (2010). Ground truth hardware phantoms for validation of diffusion-weighted MRI applications. J Magn Reson Imaging, 32, 482-488.
  • Schiltz C, Dricot L, Goebel R, Rossion B. (2010). Holistic perception of individual faces in the right middle fusiform gyrus as evidenced by the composite face illusion. J Vis., 10, 25.1-16.
  • Reithler J, van Mier HI, Goebel R. (2010). Continuous motor sequence learning: cortical efficiency gains accompanied by striatal functional reorganization. NeuroImage, 52, 263-276.
  • Peters JC, Jans B, van de Ven V, De Weerd P, Goebel R. (2010). Dynamic brightness induction in V1: analyzing simulated and empirically acquired fMRI data in a "common brain space" framework. NeuroImage, 52, 973-984.
  • van Atteveldt NM, Blau VC, Blomert L, Goebel R (2010). fMR-adaptation indicates selectivity to audiovisual content congruency in distributed clusters in human superior temporal cortex. BMC Neuroscience, 11:11.
  • De Martino F, Valente G, de Borst AW, Esposito F, Roebroeck A, Goebel R, Formisano E (2010). Multimodal imaging: an evaluation of univariate and multivariate methods for simultaneous EEG/fMRI. Magn Reson Imaging., 28, 1104-1112.
  • Blau V, Reithler J, van Atteveldt N, Seitz J, Gerretsen P, Goebel R, Blomert L (2010). Deviant processing of letters and speech sounds as proximate cause of reading failure: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of dyslexic children. Brain, 133, 868-879.
  • Maus B, van Breukelen GJ, Goebel R, Berger MP (2010). Optimization of blocked designs in fMRI studies. Psychometrica, 75, 373-390.
  • Born JM, Lemmens SG, Rutters F, Nieuwenhuizen AG, Formisano E, Goebel R, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. (2010). Acute stress and food-related reward activation in the brain during food choice during eating in the absence of hunger. Int J Obes (Lond), 34, 172-178.
  • Maus B, van Breukelen GJ, Goebel R, Berger MP (2010). Robustness of optimal design of fMRI experiments with application of a genetic algorithm. NeuroImage, 49, 2433-2443.
  • Sinke CB, Sorger B, Goebel R, de Gelder B (2010). Tease or threat? Judging social interactions from bodily expressions. NeuroImage, 49, 1717-1727.
  • de Graaf TA, Roebroeck A, Goebel R, Sack AT (2010). Brain Network Dynamics Underlying Visuospatial Judgment: An fMRI Connectivity Study. J Cogn Neurosci., 22, 2012-2026.
  • Johnston SJ, Boehm SG, Healy D, Goebel R, Linden DE (2010). Neurofeedback: A promising tool for the self-regulation of emotion networks. Neuroimage, 49, 1066-1072.
  • Tamietto M, Cauda F, Corazzini LL, Savazzi S, Marzi CA, Goebel R, Weiskrantz L, de Gelder B. (2010). Collicular Vision Guides Nonconscious Behavior. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 888-902.


  • Pipa G, Städtler ES, Rodriguez EF, Waltz JA, Muckli LF, Singer W, Goebel R, Munk MH (2009). Performance- and stimulus-dependent oscillations in monkey prefrontal cortex during short-term memory. Front Integr Neurosci, 3, Article 25.
  • Sorger B, Dahmen B, Reithler J, Gosseries O, Maudoux A, Laureys S, Goebel R (2009). Another kind of 'BOLD Response': answering multiple-choice questions via online decoded single-trial brain signals. Prog Brain Res, 177, 275-292.
  • Schippers MB, Gazzola V, Goebel R, Keysers C (2009). Playing charades in the fMRI: are mirror and/or mentalizing areas involved in gestural communication?. PLoS One, 4, e6801.
  • Castelo-Branco M, Kozak LR, Formisano E, Teixeira J, Xavier J, Goebel R. (2009). The type of featural attention differentially modulates hMT+ responses to illusory motion aftereffects. J Neurophysiol. 102, 3016-3025.
  • Jiang F, Dricot L, Blanz V, Goebel R, Rossion B (2009). Neural correlates of shape and surface reflectance information in individual faces. Neuroscience, 63, 1078-1091.
  • Goebel R, van Atteveldt N. (2009). Multisensory functional magnetic resonance imaging: a future perspective. Exp Brain Res, 198, 153-164.
  • van Atteveldt N, Roebroeck A, Goebel R. (2009). Interaction of speech and script in human auditory cortex: Insights from neuro-imaging and effective connectivity. Hearing Research, 258, 152-164.
  • Steeves J, Dricot L, Goltz HC, Sorger B, Peters J, Milner AD, Goodale MA, Goebel R, Rossion B (2009). Abnormal face identity coding in the middle fusiform gyrus of two brain-damaged prosopagnosic patients. Neuropsychologia, 47, 2584-2592.
  • Esposito F, Mulert C, Goebel R (2009). Combined distributed source and single-trial EEG-fMRI modeling: application to effortful decision making processes. Neuroimage, 47, 112-121.
  • Goffaux V, Rossion B, Sorger B, Schiltz C, Goebel R (2009). Face inversion disrupts the perception of vertical relations between features in the right human occipito-temporal cortex. J Neuropsychol., 3, 45-67.
  • Koten JW Jr, Wood G, Hagoort P, Goebel R, Propping P, Willmes K, Boomsma DI. (2009). Genetic contribution to variation in cognitive function: an FMRI study in twins. Science, 323, 1737-1740.
  • Blau V, van Atteveldt N, Ekkebus M, Goebel R, Blomert L. (2009). Reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds links phonological and reading deficits in adult dyslexia. Current Biology, 19, 503-508.
  • Staeren N, Renvall H, De Martino F, Goebel R, Formisano E. (2009). Sound categories are represented as distributed patterns in the human auditory cortex. Current Biology, 19, 498-502.
  • Esposito F, Aragri A, Piccoli T, Tedeschi G, Goebel R, Di Salle F. (2009). Distributed analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI time-series: modeling and interpretation issues. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 27, 1120-1130.
  • Smith ML, Fries P, Gosselin F, Goebel R, Schyns PG (2009). Inverse Mapping the Neuronal Substrates of Face Categorizations. Cerebral Cortex. 19, 2428-2438.
  • Schneider P, Andermann M, Wengenroth M, Goebel R, Flor H, Rupp A, Diesch E (2009). Reduced volume of Heschl's gyrus in tinnitus. Neuroimage. 45, 927-939.
  • Bien N, Roebroeck A, Goebel R, Sack AT (2009). The Brain's Intention to Imitate: The Neurobiology of Intentional versus Automatic Imitation. Cerebral Cortex. 19, 2338-2351.
  • Schuhmann T, Schiller NO, Goebel R, Sack AT (2009). The temporal characteristics of functional activation in Broca's area during overt picture naming. Cortex. 5, 1111-1116.
  • Sack AT, Kadosh RC, Schuhmann T, Moerel M, Walsh V, Goebel R (2009). Optimizing Functional Accuracy of TMS in Cognitive Studies: A Comparison of Methods. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 207-221.
  • Peters JC, Goebel R, Roelfsema PR (2009). Remembered but Unused: The Accessory Items in Working Memory that Do Not Guide Attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1081-1091.
  • Sack AT, van der Mark S, Schuhmann T, Schwarzbach J, Goebel R (2009). Symbolic action priming relies on intact neural transmission along the retino-geniculo-striate pathway. Neuroimage, 44, 284-293.


  • de Gelder B, Tamietto M, van Boxtel G, Goebel R, Sahraie A, van den Stock J, Stienen BM, Weiskrantz L, Pegna A. Intact navigation skills after bilateral loss of striate cortex. Curremt Biology, 18, R1128-1129.
  • Formisano E, De Martino F, Bonte M, Goebel R (2008). "Who" is saying "what"? Brain-based decoding of human voice and speech. Science, 322, 970-973.
  • Capalbo M, Postma E, Goebel R (2008). Combining structural connectivity and response latencies to model the structure of the visual system. PLoS Computational Biology, 4, e1000159.
  • Sack AT, Jacobs C, De Martino F, Staeren N, Goebel R, Formisano E (2008). Dynamic premotor-to-parietal interactions during spatial imagery. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 8417-8429.
  • Blau V, van Atteveldt N, Formisano E, Goebel R, Blomert L (2008). Task-irrelevant visual letters interact with the processing of speech sounds in heteromodal and unimodal cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 500-509.
  • Nagel IE, Schumacher EH, Goebel R, D'Esposito M (2008). Functional MRI investigation of verbal selection mechanisms in lateral prefrontal cortex. Neuroimage, 43, 801-807.
  • De Martino F, Valente G, Staeren N, Ashburner J, Goebel R, Formisano E (2008). Combining multivariate voxel selection and support vector machines for mapping and classification of fMRI spatial patterns. Neuroimage, 43, 44-58.
  • Esposito F, Aragri A, Pesaresi I, Cirillo S, Tedeschi G, Marciano E, Goebel R, Di Salle F (2008). Independent component model of the default-mode brain function: combining individual-level and population-level analyses in resting-state fMRI. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 269905-913.
  • Geuze E, Westenberg HG, Heinecke A, de Kloet CS, Goebel R, Vermetten E. (2008). Thinner prefrontal cortex in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuroimage, 41, 675-681.
  • Dricot L, Sorger B, Schiltz C, Goebel R, Rossion B (2008). Evidence for individual face discrimination in non-face selective areas of the visual cortex in acquired prosopagnosia. Behavioral Neurology, 19, 75-79.
  • Goebel R (2008). Response to Karaszewski: Creating significant art products requires the brains of artists. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 172-173.
  • Strobel A, Debener S, Sorger B, Peters JC, Kranczioch C, Hoechstetter K, Engel AK, Brocke B, Goebel R (2008). Novelty and target processing during an auditory novelty oddball: A simultaneous event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroimage 40, 869-883.
  • Roebroeck A, Galuske R, Formisano E, Chiry O, Bratzke H, Ronen I, Kim DS, Goebel R (2008). High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the human optic chiasm at 9.4 T. Neuroimage, 39, 157-186.
  • van de Ven V, Bledowski C, Prvulovic D, Goebel R, Formisano E, Di Salle F, Linden DE, Esposito F. (2008). Visual target modulation of functional connectivity networks revealed by self-organizing group ICA. Human Brain Mapping 29, 1450-1461.
  • Dricot L, Sorger B, Schiltz C, Goebel R, Rossion B. (2008). The roles of "face" and "non-face" areas during individual face perception: Evidence by fMRI adaptation in a brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient. Neuroimage, 40, 318-332.


  • Kriegeskorte N, Formisano E, Sorger B, Goebel R (2007). Individual faces elicit distinct response patterns in human anterior temporal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104, 20600-20605.
  • Riecke L, van Opstal AJ, Goebel R, Formisano E (2007). Hearing illusory sounds in noise: sensory-perceptual transformations in primary auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 12684-12689.
  • Reithler J, van Mier HI, Peters JC, Goebel R (2007). Nonvisual motor learning influences abstract action observation. Current Biology, 17, 1201-1207.
  • van Atteveldt NM, Formisano E, Goebel R, Blomert L (2007). Top-down task effects overrule automatic multisensory responses to letter-sound pairs in auditory association cortex. Neuroimage, 36, 1345-1360.
  • Smolders A, De Martino F, Staeren N, Scheunders P, Sijbers J, Goebel R, Formisano E (2007). Dissecting cognitive stages with time-resolved fMRI data: a comparison of fuzzy clustering and independent component analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 25, 860-868.
  • Mayer JS, Bittner RA, Nikolic D, Bledowski C, Goebel R, Linden DE (2007). Common neural substrates for visual working memory and attention. Neuroimage, 36, 441-453.
  • Weiskopf N, Sitaram R, Josephs O, Veit R, Scharnowski F, Goebel R, Birbaumer N, Deichmann R, Mathiak K (2007). Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging: methods and applications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 25, 989-1003.
  • Kadosh RC, Kadosh KC, Schuhmann T, Kaas A, Goebel R, Henik A, Sack AT (2007). Virtual dyscalculia induced by parietal-lobe TMS impairs automatic magnitude processing. Current Biology, 17, 689-693.
  • Sack AT, Kohler A, Bestmann S, Linden DE, Dechent P, Goebel R, Baudewig J (2007). Imaging the Brain Activity Changes Underlying Impaired Visuospatial Judgments: Simultaneous fMRI, TMS, and Behavioral Studies. Cerebral Cortex.
  • Sorger B, Goebel R, Schiltz C, Rossion B (2007). Understanding the functional neuroanatomy of acquired prosopagnosia. Neuroimage, 35, 836-852.
  • Cohen Kadosh R, Cohen Kadosh K, Kaas A, Henik A, Goebel R. (2007). Notation-dependent and -independent representations of numbers in the parietal lobes. Neuron, 53, 307-314.
  • De Martino F, Gentile F, Esposito F, Balsi M, Di Salle F, Goebel R, Formisano E. (2007). Classification of fMRI independent components using IC-fingerprints and support vector machine classifiers. Neuroimage, 34, 177-194.
  • Debener S, Strobel A, Sorger B, Peters J, Kranczioch C, Engel AK, Goebel R. (2007). Improved quality of auditory event-related potentials recorded simultaneously with 3-T fMRI: Removal of the ballistocardiogram artefact. Neuroimage, 34, 587-597.
  • Kaas, A.L, van Mier, H. & Goebel, R. (2007). The neural correlates of human working memory for haptically explored object orientations. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 1637-1649.
  • Hammer, A, Goebel, R., Schwarzbach, J., Munte, TF & Jansma, BM. (2007). When sex meets syntactic gender on a neural basis during pronoun processing. Brain Research, 1146, 185-198.
  • Van Atteveldt, NM, Formisano, E., Blomert, L & Goebel, R. (2007). The effect of temporal asynchrony on the multisensory integration of letters and speech sounds. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 962-974.


  • Schmidt KE, Castelo-Branco M, Goebel R, Payne BR, Lomber SG, Galuske RA. (2006). Pattern motion selectivity in population responses of area 18. Eur J Neurosci, 24, 2363-2374.
  • Esposito F, Bertolino A, Scarabino T, Latorre V, Blasi G, Popolizio T, Tedeschi G, Cirillo S, Goebel R, Di Salle F. (2006). Inpendent component model of the default-mode brain function: Assessing the impact of active thinking. Brain Res Bull, 70, 263-269.
  • Mohr, H.M., Goebel, R. & Linden, D.E. (2006). Content- and task-specific dissociations of frontal activity during maintenance and manipulation in visual working memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 4465-4471.
  • Schicke, T., Muckli, L., Beer AL, Wibral, M., Singer, W., Goebel, R., Rosler, F & Roeder, B. (2006). Tight covariation of BOLD signal changes and slow ERPs in the parietal cortex in a parametric spatial imagery task with haptic acquisition. European Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 1910-1918.
  • Goebel, R., Esposito, F. & Formisano, E. (2006). Analysis of functional image analysis contest (FIAC) data with Brainvoyager QX: From single-subject to cortically aligned group general linear model analysis and self-organizing group independent component analysis. Human Brain Mapping, 27, 392-401.
  • Kriegeskorte, N., Goebel, R., Bandettini, P. (2006). Information-based functional brain mapping. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 103, 3863-3868.
  • Abler, B., Roebroeck, A., Goebel, R., Hose, A. Schoenfeldt-Lecuona, C., Hole, G., Walter, H. (2006). Investigating directed influences between activated brain areas in a motor-response task using fMRI. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24, 181-185.
  • Bledowski, C., Cohen Kadosh, K., Wibral, M., Rahm, B., Bittner, R.A., Hoechstetter, K., Scherg, M., Maurer, K., Goebel, R., Linden, D.E. (2006). Mental chronometry of working memory retrieval: a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials approach. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 821-829.
  • Muckli L, Kiess S, Tonhausen N, Singer W, Goebel R, Sireteanu R. (2006). Cerebral correlates of impaired grating perception in individual, psychophysically assessed human amblyopes. Vision Research, 46, 506-526.
  • Bles M, Schwarzbach J, De Weerd P, Goebel R, Jansma BM. (2006). Receptive field size-dependent attention effects in simultaneously presented stimulus displays. Neuroimage, 30, 506-511.
  • Esposito F, Di Salle F, Hennel F, Santopaolo O, Herdener M, Scheffler K, Goebel R, Seifritz E. (2006). A multivariate approach for processing magnetization effects in triggered event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging time series. Neuroimage, 30, 136-143.
  • Reithler J, Reithler H, van den Boogert E, Goebel R, van Mier H. (2006). Resistance-based high resolution recording of predefined 2-dimensional pen trajectories in an fMRI setting. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 152, 10-17.
  • Sack AT, Kohler A, Linden DE, Goebel R, Muckli L. (2006) The temporal characteristics of motion processing in hMT/V5+: Combining fMRI and neuronavigated TMS. Neuroimage, 29, 1326-1335.
  • Schiltz, C., Sorger, B., Caldara, R., Ahmed, F., Mayer, E., Goebel, R., Rossion, B. (2006). Impaired face discrimination in acquired prosopagnosia Is associated with abnormal response to individual faces in the right middle fusiform gyrus. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 574-586.


  • Weiskopf N, Scharnowski F, Veit R, Goebel R, Birbaumer N, Mathiak K. (2004). Self-regulation of local brain activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Journal of Physiology Paris, 98, 357-373.
  • Schneider, P., Sluming, V., Roberts, N., Scherg, M., Goebel, R., Specht, H.J., Dosch, H.G., Bleeck, S., Stippich, C., Rupp, A. (2005). Structural and functional asymmetry of lateral Heschl's gyrus reflects pitch perception preference. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 1241-1247.
  • van de Ven, V.G., Formisano, E., Roder, C.H., Prvulovic, D., Bittner, R.A., Dietz, M.G., Hubl, D., Dierks, T., Federspiel, A., Esposito, F., Di Salle, F., Jansma, B., Goebel, R., Linden, D.E. (2005). The spatiotemporal pattern of auditory cortical responses during verbal hallucinations. Neuroimage, 27, 644-655.
  • Dueck, M.H., Petzke, F., Gerbershagen, H.J., Paul, M., Hesselmann, V., Girnus, R., Krug, B., Sorger, B., Goebel, R., Lehrke, R., Sturm,.V, Boerner, U. (2005). Propofol attenuates responses of the auditory cortex to acoustic stimulation in a dose-dependent manner: a FMRI study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 49, 784-791.
  • Kadosh, R.C., Henik, A., Rubinsten, O., Mohr, H., Dori, H., van de Ven, V., Zorzi, M., Hendler, T., Goebel, R., Linden, D.E. (2005). Are numbers special? The comparison systems of the human brain investigated by fMRI. Neuropsychologia, 43, 1238-1248.
  • Sack, A.T., Camprodon, J.A., Pascual-Leone, A. & Goebel, R. (2005). The dynamics of inter-hemispheric compensatory processes in mental imagery. Science, 308, 702-704.
  • Roebroeck, A., Formisano, E., & Goebel, R. (2005). Mapping directed influence over the brain using Granger causality and fMRI, NeuroImage, 25, 230-242.
  • Esposito, F., Scarabino, T., Hyvarinen, A., Himberg, J., Formisano, E., Comani, S., Tedeschi, G., Goebel, R., Seifritz, E. & Di Salle, F. (2005). Independent component analysis of fMRI group studies by self-organizing clustering, NeuroImage, 25, 193-205.
  • Kranczioch, C., Debener, S., Schwarzbach, J., Goebel, R., Engel, A.K. (2005). Neural correlates of visual awareness: implications of the attentional blink. Neuroimage, 24, 704-714.


  • Formisano, E., Esposito, F., Di Salle, F. & Goebel, R. (2004). Cortex-based independent component analysis of fMRI time-series. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 22, 1493-1504.
  • Van Atteveldt, N., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Blomert, L. (2004). Integration of letters and speech sounds in the human brain. Neuron, 43, 271-282.
  • Bledowski, C., Prvulovic, D., Goebel, R., Zanella, F.E., Linden, D.E. (2004). Attentional systems in target and distractor processing: a combined ERP and fMRI study. NeuroImage, 22, 530-540.
  • Bledowski, C., Prvulovic, D., Hoechstetter, K., Scherg, M., Wibral, M., Goebel, R., Linden, D.E. (2004). Localizing P300 generators in visual target and distractor processing: a combined event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of Neuroscience, 24. 9353-9360.
  • Hesselmann V, Sorger B, Lasek K, Guntinas-Lichius O, Krug B, Sturm V, Goebel R, Lackner K (2004). Discriminating the cortical representation sites of tongue and up movement by functional MRI. Brain Topogr, 16, 159-67.
  • Weiskopf, N., Mathiak, K., Bock, S.W., Scharnowski, F., Veit, R., Grodd, W., Goebel, R., Birbaumer, N. (2004) Principles of a brain-computer interface (BCI) based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 51, 966-970.


  • Goebel, R., Roebroeck, A., Kim, D.-S. & Formisano, E. (2003). Investigating directed cortical interactions in time-resolved fMRI data using vector autoregressive modeling and Granger causality mapping. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 21, 1251-1261.
  • Kim, D.-S., Kim, M., Ronen, I., Formisano, E., Kim, K.H., Ugurbil, K., Mori, S. & Goebel, R. (2003). In vivo mapping of functional domains and axonal connectivity in cat visual cortex using magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 21, 1131-1140.
  • Esposito, F., Seifritz, E., Formisano, E., Morrone, R., Scarabino, T., Tedeschi, G., Cirillo, S., Goebel, R. & Di Salle, F. (2003). Real-time independent component analysis of fMRI time-series. NeuroImage, 20, 2209-2224.
  • Linden D.E., Bittner, R.A., Muckli, L., Waltz, J.A., Kriegeskorte, N., Goebel, R., Singer, W. & Munk, M.H. (2003). Cortical capacity constraints for visual working memory: dissociation of fMRI load effects in a fronto-parietal network. NeuroImage, 20, 1518-1530.
  • Formisano, E., Kim, D.-S., Di Salle, F., van de Moortele, P.-F., Ugurbil, K. & Goebel, R. (2003). Mirror-symmetric tonotopic maps in human primary auditory cortex. Neuron, 40, 859-869.
  • Weiskopf, N., Veit, R., Erb, M., Mathiak, K., Grodd, W., Goebel, R. & Birbaumer, N. (2003). Physiological self-regulation of regional brain activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): methodology and exemplary data. NeuroImage, 19, 577-586.
  • Schmidt, K.E., Linden, D.E., Goebel, R., Zanella, F.E., Lanfermann, H. & Zubcov, A.A. (2003). Striatal activation during blepharospasm revealed by fMRI. Neurology, 60, 1738-1743.
  • Formisano, E. & Goebel, R. (2003). Tracking cognitive processes with functional MRI mental chronometry. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 13, 174-181.
  • Kriegeskorte, N., Sorger, B., Naumer, M., Schwarzbach, J., van den Boogert, E., Hussy, W. & Goebel, R. (2003). Human cortical object recognition from a visual motion flowfield. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 1451-1463.


  • Castelo-Branco, M., Formisano, E., Backes, W., Zanella, F., Neuenschwander, S., Singer, W. & Goebel, R. (2002). Activity patterns in human motion-sensitive areas depend on the interpretation of global motion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 99, 13914-13919.
  • Galuske, R.A., Schmidt, K.E., Goebel, R., Lomber, S.G. & Payne, B.R. (2002). The role of feedback in shaping neural representations in cat visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.
  • Prvulovic, D., Hubl, D., Sack, A.T., Melillo, L., Maurer, K., Frolich, L., Lanfermann, H., Zanella, F.E., Goebel, R., Linden, D.E., Dierks, T. (2002). Functional imaging of visuospatial processing in Alzheimer's disease. NeuroImage, 17, 1403-1414.
  • Formisano, E., Linden, D.E.J., Di Salle, F., Trojano, L., Esposito, F., Sack, A.T., Grossi, D., Zanella, F.E. & Goebel, R. (2002). Tracking the mind's image in the brain I: Time-resolved fMRI during visuospatial mental imagery. Neuron, 35, 185-194.
  • Sack, A., Sperling, J.M., Prvulovic, D., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Di Salle, F., Dierks, T. & Linden D.E.J.  (2002). Tracking the mind's image in the brain II: Differential effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right and left parietal lobe. Neuron, 35, 195-204.
  • Munk, M.E., Linden D.E., Muckli, L., Lanfermann, H., Zanella, F.E., Singer, W., & Goebel, R. (2002). Distributed cortical systems in visual short-term memory revealed by event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral Cortex, 12, 866-876.
  • Formisano, E., Esposito, F., Kriegeskorte, N., Tedeschi, G., Di Salle, F. & Goebel, R. (2002). Spatial independent component analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging time-series: characterization of the cortical components. Neurocomputing, 49, 241-254.
  • Esposito, F., Formisano, E., Seifritz, E., Goebel, R., Morrone, R., Tedeschi, G. & Di Salle, F. (2002). Spatial independent component analysis of functional MRI time-series: To what extent do results depend on the algorithm used? Human Brain Mapping, 16, 146-157.
  • Muckli, L, Singer, W., Zanella, F.E. & Goebel, R. (2002). Integration of multiple motion vectors over space: A fMRI study of transparent motion perception. NeuroImage, 14, 843-856.
  • Muckli, L., Kriegeskorte, N., Lanfermann, H., Zanella, F.E., Singer, W. & Goebel, R. (2002). Apparent motion: Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging of perceptual switches and states. J Neurosci, 22, RC219, 1-5. [Full Text]
  • Trojano, L., Grossi, D., Linden, D.E.J., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Cirillo, S., Elefante, R., Di Salle, F. (2002). Coordinate and categorical judgements in spatial imagery. An fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 40, 1666-1674.
  • Sack, A., Hubl, D., Prvulovic, D., Formisano, E., Jandl, M., Zanella, F.E., Maurer, K., Goebel, R., Dierks, T. & Linden, D.E. (2002). The experimental combination of rTMS and fMRI reveals the functional relevance of parietal cortex for visuospatial functions. Cognitive Brain Research, 13, 85-93.


  • Kriegeskorte, N. & Goebel, R. (2001). An efficient algorithm for topologically correct segmentation of the cortical sheet in anatomical MR volumes. NeuroImage, 14, 329-346
  • Vaughan, J.T., Garwood, M., Collins, C.M., Liu, W., DelaBarre, L., Adrainy, G., Andersen, P., Merkle, H., Goebel, R., Smith, M.B. & Ugurbil, K. (2001). 7T vs. 4T: RF power, homogeneity, and signal-to-noise comparison in head images. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 46, 24-30.
  • Goebel, R., Muckli, L., Zanella, F.E., Singer, W. & Stoerig, P. (2001). Sustained extrastriate cortical activation without visual awareness revealed by fMRI studies of hemianopic patients. Vision Research, 41, 1459-1474.
  • Fries, P., Neuenschwander, S., Engel, A.K., Goebel, R. & Singer, W. (2001). Rapid feature selective neuronal synchronization through correlated latency shifting. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 194-200.
  • Kleiser, R, Wittsack, J., Niedeggen, M., Goebel, R & Stoerig, P. (2001). Is V1 necessary for conscious vision in areas of relative cortical blindness? NeuroImage, 13, 654-661.
  • Di Salle, F., Formisano, E., Seifritz, E.,  Linden, D.E.J., Scheffler, K., Saulino, C., Tedeschi, G., Zanella, F.E., Pepino, A., Goebel, R., & Marciano, E. (2001). Functional fields in human auditory cortex revealed by time-resolved fMRI without interference of EPI noise. NeuroImage, 13, 328-338.
  • Brecht, M., Goebel, R., Singer, W. & Engel, A.K. (2001). Synchronization of visual responses in the superior colliculus of awake cats. NeuroReport, 12, 43-47.


  • Castelo-Branco, M., Goebel, R., Neuenschwander, S. & Singer, W. (2000). Neural synchrony correlates with transparency rules constraining visual surface segregation. Nature, 405, 685-689.
  • Kiebel, S., Goebel, R. & Friston, K. (2000). Characterization of functional observations using anatomically informed spatiotemporal basis functions, NeuroImage, 11, 656-667.
  • Trojano, L., Grossi, D., Linden, D.E.J., Formisano, E., Hacker, H., Zanella, F.E., Goebel, R. & Di Salle, F. (2000). Matching two imagined clocks: The functional anatomy of spatial analysis in the absence of visual stimulation. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 473-481.


  • Dierks, T., Linden, D.E.J., Jandl, M., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Lanfermann, H., Singer,W. (1999). Activation of Heschl’s gyrus during auditory hallucinations. Neuron, 22, 615-621.
  • Di Salle, F., Formisano, E., Linden, D., Goebel, R., Bonavita, S., Pepino, A., Smaltino, F. & Tedeschi, G. (1999). Exploring brain function with Magnetic Resonance Imaging. European Journal of Radiology, 30, 84-94.
  • Linden, D.E.J., Kallenbach, U., Heinecke, A., Singer, W., & Goebel, R. (1999). The myth of upright vision. A psychophysical and functional imaging study of adaptation to inverting spectacles. Perception, 28, 469-481.
  • Linden, D.E.J., Prvulovic, D., Formisano, E., Völlinger, M., Zanella, F.E., Goebel, R. and Dierks, T. (1999). The functional neuroanatomy of target detection: An fMRI study of visual and auditory oddball tasks. Cerebral Cortex, 9, 815-823.
  • Dierks, T., Linden, D.E.J, Hertel, A., Günther, T., Lanfermann, H., Niesen, A., Frölich, L., Zanella, F.E., Hör, G., Goebel, R. Maurer, K. (1998). Multimodal imaging of residual function and compensatory resource allocation in cortical atrophy: a case study of parietal lobe function in a patient with Huntingtion’s disease. Psychiatry Research, 84, 27-35.
  • Goebel, R., Khorram-Sefat, D., Muckli, L., Hacker, H. and Singer, W. (1998) The constructive nature of vision: Direct evidence from fMRI studies of apparent motion and motion imagery. The European Journal of Neuroscience, 10, 1563-1573.
  • Goebel, R., Linden, D. E. J., Lanfermann, H., Zanella, F. E. and Singer, W. (1998). Functional imaging of mirror and inverse reading reveals separate coactivated networks for oculomotion and spatial transformations. NeuroReport, 9(4), 713-719.
  • Schmidt, K. E., Goebel, R., Löwel, S., & Singer, W. (1997). The perceptual grouping criterion of colinearity is reflected by anisotropies of connections in primary visual cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 1083-1089.

Book Chapters

  • Goebel, R, Esposito, F (2010). The Added Value of EEG-fMRI in Imaging Neuroscience. In Mulert, Christoph, Lemieux, Louis (Eds.), EEG – fMRI: Physiological Basis, Technique, and Applications, Springer.
  • Sorger, B., Reithler, J. & Goebel, R. (2010). Grundlagen hämodynamisch basierter Brain-Computer-Interfaces. In K.H. Pantke (Ed.), Mensch und Maschine: Wie Brain-Computer-Interfaces und andere Innovationen gelähmten Menschen kommunizieren helfen, Frankfurt am Main: Mabuse-Verlag, 55-71.
  • Sorger, B., Reithler, J. & Goebel, R. (2010). Einsatzmöglichkeiten hämodynamisch basierter Brain-Computer-Interfaces für Kommunikation und Umgebungskontrolle. In K.H. Pantke (Ed.), Mensch und Maschine: Wie Brain-Computer-Interfaces und andere Innovationen gelähmten Menschen kommunizieren helfen, Frankfurt am Main: Mabuse-Verlag, 73-89.
  • Goebel, R., De Weerd, P. (2009). Perceptual Filling-in: From Experimental Data to Neural Network Modeling. In: Gazzaniga, M.S., (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences IV., MIT Press.
  • Kaas AL, Stoeckel MC, Goebel R. (2008). The Neural Bases of Haptic Working Memory. In: Martin Grunwald (Ed.), Human haptic perception: basics and applications., Birhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland. ISBN: 978-3-7643-7611-6.
  • Goebel, R. (2007). Localization of brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In: Stippich C (Ed.), Clinical Functional MRI - Presurgical Functional Neuroimaging. Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Formisano, E., F. Di Salle & Goebel R. (2006). Fundamentals of data analysis methods in fMRI. In: Landini L, Positano V, Santarelli M.F. (Eds.) Advanced Image processing in magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Goebel, R. (2005). Chapters 2 (fMRI technical basics) and 3 (fMRI analysis basics) in: Walter H (ed) (2005) Funktionelle Bildgebung in Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie: Methodische Grundlagen und klinische Anwendungen. Stuttgart: Schattauer.
  • Goebel, R., Roebroeck, A., Kim, D.-S. & Formisano, E. (2004). Directed cortical interactions during dynamic sensory-motor mapping. In: N. Kanwisher & J. Duncan (Eds.), Functional Neuroimaging of Visual Cognition - Attention and Performance XX. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Goebel, R., Muckli, L. & Kim, D.-S. (2003). The Visual System. In: G. Paxinos & J.K. Mai (Eds.), The Human Nervous System, 2nd Edition. New York: Academic Press.
  • Formisano, E., Esposito, F., Di Salle, F. & Goebel, R (2003). Combininig ICA and cortical surface reconstruction in functional MRI investigations of human brain functions, In: Amari S, Cichocki A, Makino S, Murata N (Eds.) ICA 2003, 307-312.
  • Goebel, R. & Indefrey, P. (2000). A recurrent network with short-term memory capacity learning the German -s plural. In: J. Murre & P. Broeder (Eds.), Models of Language Acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 177-200.
  • Goebel, R., Muckli, L. and Singer, W. (1999). Motion perception and motion imagery: New evidence of constructive brain processes from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. In: A.D. Frederici & R. Menzel (Eds.), Learning: Rule extraction and representation. Berlin, New York: de Gruyter.
  • Goebel, R. (1999). Einblicke ins Gehirn. In: Jahrbuch des Wissenschaftskollegs zu Berlin.
  • Betz, H., Goebel, R. and Jentsch, Th. (1997) Neurowissenschaften. In: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - Perspektiven der Forschung und ihrer Förderung. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.
  • Goebel, R. (1997). BrainVoyager: Ein Programm zur Analyse und Visualisierung von Magnetresonanztomographiedaten. In T. Plesser, P. Wittenburg (Hrsg.), Forschung und wissenschaftliches Rechnen. Beiträge zum Heinz-Billing-Preis 1996. GWDG-Bericht. Göttingen: Gesellschaft für wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung mbH.
  • Murre, J. & Goebel, R (1996). Connectionist models. In: T. Dijkstra & K. De Smedt (Eds.), Computational Psycholinguistics. London: Taylor & Francis, 49-81.
  • Goebel, R. (1995). Neurolator - Ein Programm zur Simulation neuronaler Netzwerke. In T. Plesser, P. Wittenburg (Hrsg.), Forschung und wissenschaftliches Rechnen. Beiträge zum Heinz-Billing-Preis 1994. GWDG-Bericht Nr. 40. Göttingen: Gesellschaft für wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung mbH, 13-36.
  • Goebel, R. (1995). The role of visual perception, selective attention, and short-term memory for symbol manipulation: A neural network model that learns to evaluate simple LISP expressions. In: K.F. Wender, F. Schmalhofer & H.-D. Boecker (Eds.), Cognition and Computer Programming. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
  • Goebel, R (1994). Synchrone Oszillationen in visuellen Systemen und in neuronalen Netzwerk-Modellen. In: I. Duwe, F. Kurfeß, G. Paaß, G. Palm, H. Ritter & S. Vogel (Hrsg.), Konnektionismus und Neuronale Netze: Beiträge zur HeKoNN94.
  • Goebel, R & Vorberg, D. (1992). Ein Simulationsmodell für das Lösen rekursiver Programmierprobleme. In K. Reiss, M. Reiss, und H. Spandl (Hrsg.). Maschinelles Lernen. Modellierung von Lernen mit Maschinen. Springer Verlag.

Selected Conference Proceedings

  • Kim KH, Ronen I, Formisano E, Goebel R, Ugurbil K, Kim DS (2004). Robust fiber tracking method by vector selection criterion in diffusion tensor images. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc., 2, 1080-1083.
  • Goebel, R. (2000). A fast automated method for flattening cortical surfaces. NeuroImage, 11, S680.
  • Naumer, M., Milene, B., Grether, M., Muckli, L., Engel, A.K., Zanella, F.E., Singer, W., and Goebel, R. (2000). Three-dimensional structure-from-motion activates shape-specific areas in the ventral visual processing stream. NeuroImage, 11, S691.
  • Goebel, R. & Singer, W. (1999). Cortical surface-based statistical analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. NeuroImage.
  • Kiebel, S., Goebel, R. & Friston, K. (1999). Characterization of Functional Observations using Anatomically Informed Spatiotemporal Basis Functions. NeuroImage, Supplement.
  • Scherg, M, Linden, D.E.J., Muckli, L., Roth, R., Drüen, K., Ille, N., Zanella, FE., Singer, W. & Goebel, R. (1999). Combining MEG with fMRI in Studies of the Human Visual System. In: Yoshimoto, T., Kotani, M., Karibe, H., Nakasato, N. (eds.). Recent Advances in Biomagnetism. Sendai: Tohoku University Press.
  • Goebel, R. (1997). Biologically inspired neurons and networks: The functional role of temporal coding. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Microelectronics for Neural Networks, Evolutionary & Fuzzy Systems.
  • Westermann, G. & Goebel, R. (1995). Connectionist Rules of Language. In: Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Goebel, R. (1993). Perceiving complex visual scenes: An oscillator neural network model that integrates selective attention, perceptual organisation, and invariant recognition. In C.L. Giles, S.J. Hanson, and J.D. Cowan (Eds.), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 5. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
  • Indefrey, P. & Goebel, R. (1993). The Learning of Weak Noun Declension in German: Children vs. Artificial Neural Networks. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 575-580). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Goebel, R. (1990). Learning Symbol Processing with Recurrent Networks. In: R. Eckmiller, G. Hartmann & G. Hauske (Eds.), Parallel Processing in Neural Systems and Computers. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Goebel, R. (1990). A connectionist approach to high-level cognitive modeling. In: Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Cambridge, MA., 852-859.
  • Goebel, R. (1990c). Binding, Episodic Short-Term Memory, and Selective Attention, Or Why are PDP Models Poor at Symbol Manipulation? In D.S. Touretzky, J.L. Elman, T.J. Sejnowski, & G.E. Hinton (Eds.), Connectionist Models. Proceedings of the 1990 Summer School (pp. 253-264). San Mateo: Morgan Kaufman. (Heinz-Maier-Leibnitz Advancement Award 1993 in cognitive science)


Teacher and lecturer at the University of Maastricht, Faculty of Psychology, Department of Neurocognition (40 %): Lectures in the field of Cognitive Neuroscience (Methods, Attention), preparation and execution of trainings in methods of cognitive neuroscience, tutor in student groups according to principles of the problem based learning system of Maastricht University, supervision of student turn papers, master thesis, Ph.D. thesis.

Extra Activities

CEO of Brain Innovation BV (see http://www.brainvoyager.com/RainerGoebel.html)

CSTO Scannexus (see http://www.scannexus.nl)

Team leader of "Neuroimaging and Neuromodeling" group of the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience (see http://www.herseninstituut.knaw.nl/research_groups/goebel_group )