Universiteit Maastricht

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Prof. Dr. R Goebel (Rainer)


Full Professor for Cognitive Neuroscience

Faculty / Department
  • Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht Brain Imaging Centre
  • Psychology and Neuroscience, Cognitive Neuroscience

Phone number: +31433884014

Location: 1.005 OX55

Prof. Dr. R  Goebel

Professional Career History

Rainer Goebel studied psychology and computer science in Marburg, Germany (1983-1988). He investigated in his master thesis how students learn to solve recursive programming problems. During his PhD at the Technical University of Braunschweig (1990-1994) he worked on artificial neural network simulations of visual processing under the supervision of Prof. Dirk Vorberg developing a large-scale oscillatory network model of scene segmentation, selective attention and shape recognition.

In 1993 he received the Heinz Maier Leibnitz Advancement award in cognitive science sponsored by the German minister of science and education for a publication on the binding problem and in 1994 he received the Heinz Billing award from the Max Planck society for developing a software package for the creation and simulation of neural network models. From 1995-1999 he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt/Main in the Dept. of Neurophysiology under Prof. Wolf Singer where he founded the functional neuroimaging group. In 1997/1998 he was a fellow at the Berlin Institute for Advanced studies ("Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin").

Since January 2000, he is a full professor for Cognitive Neuroscience in the psychology department of Maastricht University. He is the founding director of the Maastricht Brain Imaging Centre (M-BIC), which celebrated its opening in spring 2005. and the driving force of the recently established ultra-high field imaging center housing 3, 7 and 9.4 Tesla human MRI scanners. He is also team leader of the “Modeling and Neuroimaging” group at the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience in Amsterdam. In both institutes he combines functional brain imaging with neural network modelling to advance our understanding of brain function at multiple levels of organization.

From 2006, he is the Research Director of the FPN Maastricht Research Institute together with Peter de Weerd and he served the faculty board as head of research and innovation. From 2006-2008 he served as chair of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping. He received funding for basic and translational neuroscience research including a prestigious Advanced Investigators Grant from the European Research Council (2011 - 2016) and a competitive grant from the Human Brain Project (2014-2016). He is also founder of the company Brain Innovation BV that produces free and commercial software for neuroimaging data analysis and clinical applications (see brainvoyager.com). In 2014 he has been selected as member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Research Profile

Rainer Goebel's core research interest is the question which neuronal representations are used in the brain and how they are processed to enable specific perceptual and cognitive functions. These questions are investigated by integrating neuroimaging with neural network modeling and the development of advanced analysis tools. Progress in understanding brain mechanisms are tested by neuroscientific applications including brain computer interfaces (BCIs) and neurofeedback studies.

Research Projects

The following three sections describe the research topics currently studied most intensively.


Cracking the columnar-level functional code of the brain

With standard functional brain imaging (i.e. fMRI at 3 Tesla), we can routinely see specialised brain areas in the human brain, including “experts” for colour, visual motion, faces, words, language, planning, memory and emotions. This level of resolution reveals an amazing organisation of the brain that is similar, but not identical, across individuals. We still, however, know little about the representations coded inside specialised brain areas and how complex features emerge from combinations of simpler features when we move from one area to the next. With high-field MRI scanners (7 Tesla and beyond), the achievable functional resolution reaches to the sub-millimetre level (500–1000 microns). This is important since neurons with similar response properties seem to spatially cluster into functional units or cortical columns with a lateral extent of hundreds of microns. Studying the brain at the cortical columnar level seems to be the right level to reveal the principles that the brain uses to code information. I believe that this columnar-level code can indeed be "cracked" by adequately combining clever experimental designs (psychology), sub-millimetre fMRI (neuroimaging), sophisticated data analysis tools (signal analysis) and large-scale neuronal network modelling (computational neuroscience). Goebel believes that a massive attempt to crack the columnar-level code in as many areas as possible will ultimately lead to a deeper understanding how mind emerges from simpler units in the brain.

Large-scale neuronal network modeling of cognitive architectures

Rainer Goebel invented the “Common Brain Space” (CBS) modeling approach allowing for the first time to simulate and predict individual topographic neuroimaging data at different levels of organization reaching from networks to areas to columnar features; the CBS approach has been applied to explain visual illusions, selective visual attention and invariant object recognition and it will be used to model columnar-level feature representations measured with ultra-high field fMRI (see section above).


Neurofeedback and brain computer interfaces

In collaboration with Niels Birbaumer and Nikolaus Weiskopf, Goebel co-pioneered fMRI-based moment-to-moment neurofeedback with the development of the "Turbo-BrainVoyager" software package. After advancing real-time fMRI methods further, Goebel currently contributes to applications of fMRI neurofeedback as a novel therapeutic tool, e.g. for patients with Parkinson’s disease and depression. Using fMRI and functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), Goebel and colleagues use real-time fMRI also to develop communication BCIs for patients with severe motor impairments. Goebel also introduced the first interactive fMRI hyper scanning experiment where measured brain activity was used online to play “Brain Pong”. He currently extents real-time fMRI to the columnar level to enable content-specific neurofeedback studies and better communication BCIs.


Besides these major research lines, Rainer Goebel's research activities includes:

  • High-resolution functional imaging of the visual system at the levels of cortical layers and cortical columns
  • Neural correlates of visual attention, mental imagery, perceptual switches and decision making
  • Cross-modal integration of visual-auditory and visual-haptic information
  • Topographic mapping of visual, auditory and somatotopic features
  • Development of new analysis methods for structural and functional MRI data
  • Real-time fMRI, BCI, hyperscanning and clinical applications of neurofeedback
  • Portable brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)
  • Integration of spatially (fMRI) and temporally resolved (EEG/MEG) imaging methods
  • Data-driven brain imaging analysis tools to reveal functional and effective connectivity
  • Advanced methods for cortex-based statistics and brain normalization
  • Reconstruction of white and grey matter connectivity using diffusion-weighted MRI
  • Investigating effects of temporary, virtual, lesions using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
  • Applying neurofeedback and brain stimulation techniques to enhance cognitive functions


Recent Funding

2013 – 2017

EU-FP7 Health Research and Innovation Collaborative Project “BRAINTRAIN”: “Taking imaging into the therapeutic domain: Self-regulation of brain systems for mental disorders” (Brain Innovation).


2013 – 2017
EU-FP7 Health Research and Innovation Collaborative Project “IMAGEMEND”: “IMAging GEnetics for MENtal Disorders” (Brain Innovation).


2012 – 2014
Main applicant of Dutch NWO grant for medium-size investment 2011/2012 “Advanced multi-channel RF-coils for sub-millimetre functional brain imaging on ultrahigh field magnetic resonance (MR) scanners”.

2012 - 2014

European Union (EU) grant (7th Framework): “Adaptive Brain Computations” (ABC), a Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN), Industrial partner (Brain Innovation).

2011 – 2016
ERC Advanced Investigators grant (European Union 7th Framework) “Cracking the columnar-level code in the visual hierarchy: Ultra high-field functional MRI, neuro-cognitive modelling and high-resolution brain-computer interfaces”.

2010 – 2013
EU Grant "Deployment of Brain-Computer Interfaces for the Detection of Consciousness in Non-Responsive Patients" (DECODER) PI of sub-project “Exploring fNIRS”

2010 – 2012
Dutch Grant, NWO Middle-size investment: "A Virtual Reality laboratory for psychological and neuroscientific investigations of normal and deviant human behaviour (Co-Applicant).

2009 – 2012
EU Grant, Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN): "Methods in Neuroimaging" (NeuroPhysics) (Co-Applicant)

2009 – 2012
EU Grant, Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN): “Coordination for optimal decisions in dynamic environments” (Codde), Industrial partner (Brain Innovation)

2007 – 2013
Dutch Grant, “SmartMix” program (mix of academic and industrial institutions): “BrainGain”, BCI research PI of project: “fMRI-based neurofeedback”




  • Bernardi G, Ricciardi E, Sani L, Gaglianese A, Papasogli A, Ceccarelli R, Franzoni F, Galetta F, Santoro G, Goebel R, Pietrini P. (2013). How skill expertise shapes the brain functional architecture: an FMRI study of visuo-spatial and motor processing in professional racing-car and naïve drivers. PLoS One, 8, e77764.
  • Habes I, Krall SC, Johnston SJ, Yuen KS, Healy D, Goebel R, Sorger B, Linden DE. (2013). Pattern classification of valence in depression. Neuroimage. Clinical, 2, 675-83.
  • Van den Stock J, Vandenbulcke M, Sinke CB, Goebel R, de Gelder B (Epub 2013). How affective information from faces and scenes interacts in the brain. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Frost M & Goebel R. (2013). Functionally informed cortex based alignment: An integrated approach for whole-cortex macro-anatomical and ROI-based functional alignment. Neuroimage, 83, 1002-1010.
  • Bonte M, Frost MA, Rutten S, Ley A, Formisano E, Goebel R. (2013). Development from childhood to adulthood increases morphological and functional inter-individual variability in the right superior temporal cortex. Neuroimage, 83, 739-750.
  • Moerel M, De Martino F, Santoro R, Ugurbil K, Goebel R, Yacoub E, Formisano E. (2013). Processing of natural sounds: characterization of multipeak spectral tuning in human auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 11888-11898.
  • Sulzer J, Haller S, Scharnowski F, Weiskopf N, Birbaumer N, Blefari ML, Bruehl AB, Cohen LG, DeCharms RC, Gassert R, Goebel R, Herwig U, Laconte S, Linden D, Luft A, Seifritz E, Sitaram R. (2013). Real-time fMRI neurofeedback: Progress and challenges. Neuroimage, 76, 386-399.
  • De Martino F, Zimmermann J, Muckli L, Ugurbil K, Yacoub E, Goebel R. (2013). Cortical Depth Dependent Functional Responses in Humans at 7T: Improved Specificity with 3D GRASE. PLoS One, 8, e60514.
  • Mur M, Meys M, Bodurka J, Goebel R, Bandettini PA, Kriegeskorte N. (2013). Human Object-Similarity Judgments Reflect and Transcend the Primate-IT Object Representation. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 128.
  • Eck J, Kaas AL, Goebel R. (2013). Crossmodal interactions of haptic and visual texture information in early sensory cortex. Neuroimage, 75C, 123-135.
  • Eck J, Kaas AL, Mulders JL, Goebel R. (2013). Roughness perception of unfamiliar dot pattern textures. Acta Psychologica, 143, 20-34.
  • Martens MJ, Born JM, Lemmens SG, Karhunen L, Heinecke A, Goebel R, Adam TC, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. (2013). Increased sensitivity to food cues in the fasted state and decreased inhibitory control in the satiated state in the overweight. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97, 471-479.
  • De Martino F, Moerel M, van de Moortele PF, Ugurbil K, Goebel R, Yacoub E, Formisano E. (2013). Spatial organization of frequency preference and selectivity in the human inferior colliculus. Nature Communications, 4, 1386.
  • Peters, J.C., Reithler, J., Schuhmann, T., De Graaf, T., Uludag, K., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2013). On the feasibility of concurrent human TMS-EEG-fMRI measurements. Journal of Neurophysiology, 109, 1214-1227.
  • Otto, T., Zijlstra, F.R., Goebel, R. (Epub 2012). Neural correlates of mental effort evaluation - Involvement of structures related to self awareness. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, [Epub ahead of print].
  • Frost, M.A., Esposito, F., Goebel, R. (Epub 2012). Improved correspondence of resting-state networks after macroanatomical alignment. Human Brain Mapping, [Epub ahead of print].
  • Kaas, A.L., van de Ven, V., Reithler, J., Goebel, R. (2013). Tactile perceptual learning: learning curves and transfer to the contralateral finger. Experimental Brain Research, 224, 477-488.
  • Sarkheil, P., Goebel, R., Schneider, F., Mathiak, K. (Epub 2012). Emotion unfolded by motion: a role for parietal lobe in decoding dynamic facial expressions. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].
  • Seehaus, A.K., Roebroeck, A., Chiry, O., Kim, D.S., Ronen, I., Bratzke, H., Goebel, R., Galuske, R.A. (2013). Histological Validation of DW-MRI Tractography in Human Postmortem Tissue. Cerebral Cortex, 23, 442-450.
  • Goffaux, V., Schiltz, C., Mur, M., Goebel, R. (2013). Local discriminability determines the strength of holistic processing for faces in the fusiform face area. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 604.
  • Born, J.M., Martens, M.J., Lemmens, S.G., Goebel, R., Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. (2013). Protein v. carbohydrate intake differentially affects liking- and wanting-related brain signalling. The British journal of nutrition, 109, 376-381.
  • Wheat, K.L., Cornelissen, P.L., Sack, A.T., Schuhmann, T., Goebel, R., Blomert, L. (2013). Charting the functional relevance of Broca's area for visual word recognition and picture naming in Dutch using fMRI-guided TMS. Brain and Language, 125, 223-230.
  • Kaas, A.L., van Mier, H., Visser, M., Goebel, R. (2013). The neural substrate for working memory of tactile surface texture. Human Brain Mapping, 34, 1148-1162.



  • Peters, J.C., Roelfsema, P.R., Goebel, R. (2012). Task-relevant and accessory items in working memory have opposite effects on activity in extrastriate cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 17003-17011.
  • Jacobs, C., de Graaf, T.A., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2012). The temporal dynamics of early visual cortex involvement in behavioral priming. PLoS One, 7, e48808.
  • Esposito, F., Singer, N., Podlipsky, I., Fried, I., Hendler, T., Goebel, R. (2012) Cortex-based inter-subject analysis of iEEG and fMRI data sets: Application to sustained task-related BOLD and gamma responses. Neuroimage, 66C, 457-468.
  • Goffaux, V., Martin, R., Dormal, G., Goebel, R., Schiltz, C. (2012). Attentional shifts induced by uninformative number symbols modulate neural activity in human occipital cortex. Neuropsychologia, 50, 3419-3428.
  • Naci, L., Monti, M.M., Cruse, D., Kübler, A., Sorger, B., Goebel, R., Kotchoubey, B., Owen, A.M. (2012). Brain-computer interfaces for communication with nonresponsive patients. Annals of Neurology, 72, 312-323.
  • Sinke, C.B., Van den Stock, J., Goebel, R., de Gelder, B. (2012). The constructive nature of affective vision: seeing fearful scenes activates extrastriate body area. PLoS One, 7, e38118.
  • Sorger, B., Reithler, J., Dahmen, B., Goebel, R. (2012). A Real-time fMRI-based Spelling Device Immediately Enabling Robust Motor-independent Communication. Current Biology, 22, 1333-1338.
  • Tamietto, M., Pullens, P., de Gelder, B., Weiskrantz, L., Goebel, R. (2012). Subcortical Connections to Human Amygdala and Changes following Destruction of the Visual Cortex. Current Biology, 22, 1449-1455.
  • Bastiani, M., Shah, N.J., Goebel, R., Roebroeck, A. (2012). Human cortical connectome reconstruction from diffusion weighted MRI: The effect of tractography algorithm. Neuroimage, 62, 1732-1749.
  • Linden, D.E.J., Habes, I., Johnston, S.J., Linden, S., Tatineni, R., Subramanian L., Sorger, B., Healy, D., Goebel, R. (2012) Real-time Self-regulation of Emotion Networks in Patients with Depression. PLOS One, 7, e38115.
  • Goebel, R. (2012). Position coding in the visual word form area. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 109, 9226-9227.
  • Goebel, R. (2012). BrainVoyager – Past, present, future. Neuroimage, 62, 748-756.
  • Peters, J.C., Reithler, J., Goebel, R. (2012). Modeling invariant object processing based on tight integration of simulated and empirical data in a Common Brain Space. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 6, 12.
  • Zimmermann, J., Roebroeck, A., Uludag, K., Sack, A., Formisano, E., Jansma, B., De Weerd, P., Goebel, R. (2012). Network-based statistics for a community driven transparent publication process. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 6, 11.
  • Senden, M., Goebel, R., Deco, G. (2012). Structural connectivity allows for multi-threading during rest: The structure of the cortex leads to efficient alternation between resting state exploratory behavior and default mode processing. Neuroimage, 60, 2274-2284.
  • de Borst, A.W., Sack, A.T., Jansma, B.M., Esposito, F., de Martino, F., Valente, G., Roebroeck, A., di Salle, F., Goebel, R., Formisano, E. (2012). Integration of "what" and "where" in frontal cortex during visual imagery of scenes. Neuroimage, 60, 47-58.
  • Bien, N., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2012). Extinguishing Extinction: Hemispheric Differences in the Modulation of TMS-induced Visual Extinction by Directing Covert Spatial Attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 809-818.
  • de Graaf, T.A., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2012). Feedforward and quick recurrent processes in early visual cortex revealed by TMS? NeuroImage, 61, 651-659.
  • Born, J.M., Martens, M.J., Rutters, F., Lemmens, S.G., Goebel, R., Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. (2012). High HPA-axis activation disrupts the link between liking and wanting with liking and wanting related brain signaling. Physiology & Behavior, 105, 321-324.
  • Frost, M. & Goebel, R. (2012). Measuring structural-functional correspondence: Spatial variability of specialised brain regions after macro-anatomical alignment. NeuroImage, 59, 1369-1381.
  • van de Ven, V., Jans, B., Goebel, R., De Weerd, P. (2012). Early human visual cortex encodes surface brightness induced by dynamic context. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 367-377.
  • Jacobs, C., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2012). Visual awareness suppression by pre-stimulus brain stimulation; a neural effect. NeuroImage, 59, 616-624.
  • Bien, N., ten Oever, S., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2012). The sound of size: crossmodal binding in pitch-size synesthesia: a combined TMS, EEG and psychophysics study. NeuroImage, 59, 663-672.
  • Schuhmann, T., Schiller, N.O., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2012). Speaking of which: dissecting the neurocognitive network of language production in picture naming. Cerebral Cortex, 22, 701-709.
  • Maus, B., van Breukelen, G.J., Goebel, R., Berger, M.P. (2012). Optimal design for nonlinear estimation of the hemodynamic response function. Human Brain Mapping, 33, 1253-1267.



  • Zimmermann*, J., Goebel*, R., De Martino, F., van de Moortele, P.F., Feinberg, D., Adriany, G., Chaimov, D., Shmuel, A., Uğurbil, K. & Yacoub, E. (2011). Mapping the organization of axis of motion selective features in human area MT using high-field fMRI. PLoS One, 6, e28716.     * = authors contributed equally.
  • Subramanian, L. Hindle, J.V., Johnston, S., Roberts, M.V., Husain, M., Goebel, R., Linden, D. (2011). Real-Time Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Neurofeedback for Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 16309-16317.
  • de Graaf, T.A., de Jong, M.C., Goebel, R., van Ee, R., Sack, A.T. (2011). On the functional relevance of frontal cortex for passive and voluntarily controlled bistable vision. Cerebral Cortex, 21, 2322-2331.
  • Esposito, F. & Goebel, R. (2011). Extracting functional networks with spatial independent component analysis: the role of dimensionality, reliability and aggregation scheme. Current Opinion in Neurology, 24, 379-385.
  • De Martino, F., Esposito, F., van de Moortele, P.F., Harel, N., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Ugurbil, K., Yacoub, E. (2011). Whole brain high-resolution functional imaging at ultra high magnetic fields: an application to the analysis of resting state networks. NeuroImage, 57, 1031-1044.
  • Born, J.M., Lemmens, S.G., Martens, M.J., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. (2011). Differences between liking and wanting signals in the human brain and relations with cognitive dietary restraint and body mass index. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94, 392-403.
  • Jiang, F., Dricot, L., Weber, J., Righi, G., Tarr, M.J., Goebel, R., Rossion, B. (2011). Face categorization in visual scenes may start in a higher order area of the right fusiform gyrus: evidence from dynamic visual stimulation in neuroimaging. Journal of Neurophysiology, 106, 2720-2736.
  • Roebroeck A, Formisano E, Goebel R (2011). The identification of interacting networks in the brain using fMRI: model selection, causality and deconvolution. NeuroImage, 58, 296-302.
  • Rossion, B., Dricot, L., Goebel, R., Busigny, T. (2011). Holistic face categorization in higher order visual areas of the normal and prosopagnosic brain: toward a non-hierarchical view of face perception. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 4, 225.
  • Maus, B., van Breukelen, G.J., Goebel, R., Berger, M.P. (2011). Optimal design of multi-subject blocked fMRI experiments. NeuroImage, 56, 1338-1352.
  • Johnston, S., Linden, D.E., Healy, D., Goebel, R., Habes, I., Boehm, S.G. (2011). Upregulation of emotion areas through neurofeedback with a focus on positive mood. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 44-51.
  • De Martino, F., de Borst, A.W., Valente, G., Goebel, R. & Formisano, E. (2011). Predicting EEG single trial responses with simultaneous fMRI and relevance vector machine regression. NeuroImage, 56, 826-836.
  • Valente, G., De Martino, F., Esposito, F., Goebel, R., Formisano, E. (2011). Predicting subject-driven actions and sensory experience in a virtual world with relevance vector machine regression of fMRI data. NeuroImage, 56, 651-661.
  • Goffaux, V., Peters, J., Haubrechts, J., Schiltz, C., Jansma, B., & Goebel, R. (2011). From coarse to fine? Spatial and temporal dynamics of cortical face processing. Cerebral Cortex, 21, 467-476.



  • Goebel, R., Zilverstand, A. & Sorger, B. (2010). Real-time fMRI-based brain–computer interfacing for neurofeedback therapy and compensation of lost motor functions. Imaging in Medicine, 2, 407-414.
  • Pullens P, Roebroeck A, Goebel R. (2010). Ground truth hardware phantoms for validation of diffusion-weighted MRI applications. J Magn Reson Imaging, 32, 482-488.
  • Schiltz C, Dricot L, Goebel R, Rossion B. (2010). Holistic perception of individual faces in the right middle fusiform gyrus as evidenced by the composite face illusion. J Vis., 10, 25.1-16.
  • Reithler J, van Mier HI, Goebel R. (2010). Continuous motor sequence learning: cortical efficiency gains accompanied by striatal functional reorganization. NeuroImage, 52, 263-276.
  • Peters JC, Jans B, van de Ven V, De Weerd P, Goebel R. (2010). Dynamic brightness induction in V1: analyzing simulated and empirically acquired fMRI data in a "common brain space" framework. NeuroImage, 52, 973-984.
  • van Atteveldt NM, Blau VC, Blomert L, Goebel R (2010). fMR-adaptation indicates selectivity to audiovisual content congruency in distributed clusters in human superior temporal cortex. BMC Neuroscience, 11:11.
  • De Martino F, Valente G, de Borst AW, Esposito F, Roebroeck A, Goebel R, Formisano E (2010). Multimodal imaging: an evaluation of univariate and multivariate methods for simultaneous EEG/fMRI. Magn Reson Imaging, 28, 1104-1112.
  • Blau V, Reithler J, van Atteveldt N, Seitz J, Gerretsen P, Goebel R, Blomert L (2010). Deviant processing of letters and speech sounds as proximate cause of reading failure: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of dyslexic children. Brain, 133, 868-879.
  • Maus B, van Breukelen GJ, Goebel R, Berger MP (2010). Optimization of blocked designs in fMRI studies. Psychometrica, 75, 373-390.
  • Born JM, Lemmens SG, Rutters F, Nieuwenhuizen AG, Formisano E, Goebel R, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. (2010). Acute stress and food-related reward activation in the brain during food choice during eating in the absence of hunger. Int J Obes (Lond), 34, 172-178.
  • Maus B, van Breukelen GJ, Goebel R, Berger MP (2010). Robustness of optimal design of fMRI experiments with application of a genetic algorithm. NeuroImage, 49, 2433-2443.
  • Sinke CB, Sorger B, Goebel R, de Gelder B (2010). Tease or threat? Judging social interactions from bodily expressions. NeuroImage, 49, 1717-1727.
  • de Graaf TA, Roebroeck A, Goebel R, Sack AT (2010). Brain Network Dynamics Underlying Visuospatial Judgment: An fMRI Connectivity Study. J Cogn Neurosci., 22, 2012-2026.
  • Johnston SJ, Boehm SG, Healy D, Goebel R, Linden DE (2010). Neurofeedback: A promising tool for the self-regulation of emotion networks. NeuroImage, 49, 1066-1072.
  • Tamietto M, Cauda F, Corazzini LL, Savazzi S, Marzi CA, Goebel R, Weiskrantz L, de Gelder B. (2010). Collicular Vision Guides Nonconscious Behavior. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 888-902.



  • Pipa G, Städtler ES, Rodriguez EF, Waltz JA, Muckli LF, Singer W, Goebel R, Munk MH (2009). Performance- and stimulus-dependent oscillations in monkey prefrontal cortex during short-term memory. Front Integr Neurosci, 3, Article 25.
  • Sorger B, Dahmen B, Reithler J, Gosseries O, Maudoux A, Laureys S, Goebel R (2009). Another kind of 'BOLD Response': answering multiple-choice questions via online decoded single-trial brain signals. Prog Brain Res, 177, 275-292.
  • Schippers MB, Gazzola V, Goebel R, Keysers C (2009). Playing charades in the fMRI: are mirror and/or mentalizing areas involved in gestural communication?. PLoS One, 4(8), e6801.
  • Castelo-Branco M, Kozak LR, Formisano E, Teixeira J, Xavier J, Goebel R. (2009). The type of featural attention differentially modulates hMT+ responses to illusory motion aftereffects. J Neurophysiol. 102, 3016-3025.
  • Jiang F, Dricot L, Blanz V, Goebel R, Rossion B  (2009). Neural correlates of shape and surface reflectance information in individual faces. Neuroscience, 63, 1078-1091.
  • Goebel R, van Atteveldt N. (2009). Multisensory functional magnetic resonance imaging: a future perspective. Exp Brain Res, 198, 153-164.
  • van Atteveldt N, Roebroeck A, Goebel R. (2009). Interaction of speech and script in human auditory cortex: Insights from neuro-imaging and effective connectivity. Hearing Research, 258, 152-164.
  • Steeves J, Dricot L, Goltz HC, Sorger B, Peters J, Milner AD, Goodale MA, Goebel R, Rossion B (2009). Abnormal face identity coding in the middle fusiform gyrus of two brain-damaged prosopagnosic patients. Neuropsychologia, 47, 2584-2592.
  • Esposito F, Mulert C, Goebel R (2009). Combined distributed source and single-trial EEG-fMRI modeling: application to effortful decision making processes. Neuroimage, 47, 112-121.
  • Goffaux V, Rossion B, Sorger B, Schiltz C, Goebel R (2009). Face inversion disrupts the perception of vertical relations between features in the right human occipito-temporal cortex. J Neuropsychol., 3, 45-67.
  • Koten JW Jr, Wood G, Hagoort P, Goebel R, Propping P, Willmes K, Boomsma DI. (2009). Genetic contribution to variation in cognitive function: an FMRI study in twins. Science, 323, 1737-1740.
  • Blau V, van Atteveldt N, Ekkebus M, Goebel R, Blomert L. (2009). Reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds links phonological and reading deficits in adult dyslexia. Current Biology, 19, 503-508.
  • Staeren N, Renvall H, De Martino F, Goebel R, Formisano E. (2009). Sound categories are represented as distributed patterns in the human auditory cortex. Current Biology, 19, 498-502.
  • Esposito F, Aragri A, Piccoli T, Tedeschi G, Goebel R, Di Salle F. (2009). Distributed analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI time-series: modeling and interpretation issues. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 27, 1120-1130.
  • Smith ML, Fries P, Gosselin F, Goebel R, Schyns PG (2009). Inverse Mapping the Neuronal Substrates of Face Categorizations. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 2428-2438.
  • Schneider P, Andermann M, Wengenroth M, Goebel R, Flor H, Rupp A, Diesch E (2009). Reduced volume of Heschl's gyrus in tinnitus. NeuroImage, 45, 927-939.
  • Bien N, Roebroeck A, Goebel R, Sack AT (2009). The Brain's Intention to Imitate: The Neurobiology of Intentional versus Automatic Imitation. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 2338-2351.
  • Schuhmann T, Schiller NO, Goebel R, Sack AT (2009). The temporal characteristics of functional activation in Broca's area during overt picture naming. Cortex, 5, 1111-1116.
  • Sack AT, Kadosh RC, Schuhmann T, Moerel M, Walsh V, Goebel R (2009). Optimizing Functional Accuracy of TMS in Cognitive Studies: A Comparison of Methods. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 207-221.
  • Peters JC, Goebel R, Roelfsema PR (2009). Remembered but Unused: The Accessory Items in Working Memory that Do Not Guide Attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1081-1091.
  • Sack AT, van der Mark S, Schuhmann T, Schwarzbach J, Goebel R (2009). Symbolic action priming relies on intact neural transmission along the retino-geniculo-striate pathway. Neuroimage, 44, 284-293.



  • de Gelder B, Tamietto M, van Boxtel G, Goebel R, Sahraie A, van den Stock J, Stienen BM, Weiskrantz L, Pegna A. (2008). Intact navigation skills after bilateral loss of striate cortex. Curremt Biology, 18, R1128-1129.
  • Formisano E, De Martino F, Bonte M, Goebel R (2008). "Who" is saying "what"? Brain-based decoding of human voice and speech. Science, 322, 970-973.
  • Capalbo M, Postma E, Goebel R (2008). Combining structural connectivity and response latencies to model the structure of the visual system. PLoS Computational Biology, 4, e1000159.
  • Sack AT, Jacobs C, De Martino F, Staeren N, Goebel R, Formisano E (2008). Dynamic premotor-to-parietal interactions during spatial imagery. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 8417-8429.
  • Blau V, van Atteveldt N, Formisano E, Goebel R, Blomert L (2008). Task-irrelevant visual letters interact with the processing of speech sounds in heteromodal and unimodal cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 500-509.
  • Nagel IE, Schumacher EH, Goebel R, D'Esposito M (2008). Functional MRI investigation of verbal selection mechanisms in lateral prefrontal cortex. Neuroimage, 43, 801-807.
  • De Martino F, Valente G, Staeren N, Ashburner J, Goebel R, Formisano E (2008). Combining multivariate voxel selection and support vector machines for mapping and classification of fMRI spatial patterns. NeuroImage, 43, 44-58.
  • Esposito F, Aragri A, Pesaresi I, Cirillo S, Tedeschi G, Marciano E, Goebel R, Di Salle F (2008). Independent component model of the default-mode brain function: combining individual-level and population-level analyses in resting-state fMRI. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 26, 905-913.
  • Geuze E, Westenberg HG, Heinecke A, de Kloet CS, Goebel R, Vermetten E. (2008). Thinner prefrontal cortex in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuroimage, 41, 675-681.
  • Dricot L, Sorger B, Schiltz C, Goebel R, Rossion B (2008). Evidence for individual face discrimination in non-face selective areas of the visual cortex in acquired prosopagnosia. Behavioral Neurology, 19, 75-79.
  • Goebel R (2008). Response to Karaszewski: Creating significant art products requires the brains of artists. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 172-173.
  • Strobel A, Debener S, Sorger B, Peters JC, Kranczioch C, Hoechstetter K, Engel AK, Brocke B, Goebel R (2008). Novelty and target processing during an auditory novelty oddball: A simultaneous event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroimage, 40, 869-883.
  • Roebroeck A, Galuske R, Formisano E, Chiry O, Bratzke H, Ronen I, Kim DS, Goebel R (2008). High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the human optic chiasm at 9.4 T. Neuroimage, 39, 157-68.
  • van de Ven V, Bledowski C, Prvulovic D, Goebel R, Formisano E, Di Salle F, Linden DE, Esposito F. (2008). Visual target modulation of functional connectivity networks revealed by self-organizing group ICA. Human Brain Mapping, 29, 1450-1461.
  • Dricot L, Sorger B, Schiltz C, Goebel R, Rossion B. (2008). The roles of "face" and "non-face" areas during individual face perception: Evidence by fMRI adaptation in a brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient. Neuroimage, 40, 318-332.



  • Kriegeskorte N, Formisano E, Sorger B, Goebel R (2007). Individual faces elicit distinct response patterns in human anterior temporal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104, 20600-20605.
  • Riecke L, van Opstal AJ, Goebel R, Formisano E. (2007). Hearing illusory sounds in noise: sensory-perceptual transformations in primary auditory cortex. J Neurosci., 27,12684-12689.
  • Reithler J, van Mier HI, Peters JC, Goebel R (2007). Nonvisual motor learning influences abstract action observation. Current Biology, 17, 1201-1207.
  • van Atteveldt NM, Formisano E, Goebel R, Blomert L (2007). Top-down task effects overrule automatic multisensory responses to letter-sound pairs in auditory association cortex. Neuroimage, 36, 1345-1360.
  • Smolders A, De Martino F, Staeren N, Scheunders P, Sijbers J, Goebel R, Formisano E (2007). Dissecting cognitive stages with time-resolved fMRI data: a comparison of fuzzy clustering and independent component analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 25, 860-868.
  • Mayer JS, Bittner RA, Nikolic D, Bledowski C, Goebel R, Linden DE (2007). Common neural substrates for visual working memory and attention. Neuroimage, 36, 441-453.
  • Weiskopf N, Sitaram R, Josephs O, Veit R, Scharnowski F, Goebel R, Birbaumer N, Deichmann R, Mathiak K (2007). Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging: methods and applications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 25, 989-1003.
  • Kadosh RC, Kadosh KC, Schuhmann T, Kaas A, Goebel R, Henik A, Sack AT (2007). Virtual dyscalculia induced by parietal-lobe TMS impairs automatic magnitude processing. Current Biology, 17, 689-693.
  • Sack AT, Kohler A, Bestmann S, Linden DE, Dechent P, Goebel R, Baudewig J (2007). Imaging the Brain Activity Changes Underlying Impaired Visuospatial Judgments: Simultaneous fMRI, TMS, and Behavioral Studies. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 2841-2852.
  • Sorger B, Goebel R, Schiltz C, Rossion B. (2007) Understanding the functional neuroanatomy of acquired prosopagnosia. Neuroimage, 35, 836-852.
  • Cohen Kadosh R, Cohen Kadosh K, Kaas A, Henik A, Goebel R (2007). Notation-dependent and -independent representations of numbers in the parietal lobes. Neuron, 53, 307-314.
  • De Martino F, Gentile F, Esposito F, Balsi M, Di Salle F, Goebel R, Formisano E. (2007). Classification of fMRI independent components using IC-fingerprints and support vector machine classifiers. Neuroimage, 34, 177-194.
  • Debener S, Strobel A, Sorger B, Peters J, Kranczioch C, Engel AK, Goebel R. (2007). Improved quality of auditory event-related potentials recorded simultaneously with 3-T fMRI: Removal of the ballistocardiogram artefact. Neuroimage, 34, 587-597.
  • Kaas, A.L, van Mier, H. & Goebel, R. (2007). The neural correlates of human working memory for haptically explored object orientations. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 1637-1649.
  • Hammer, A, Goebel, R., Schwarzbach, J., Munte, TF & Jansma, BM. (2007). When sex meets syntactic gender on a neural basis during pronoun processing. Brain Research, 1146, 185-198.
  • Van Atteveldt, NM, Formisano, E., Blomert, L & Goebel, R. (2007). The effect of temporal asynchrony on the multisensory integration of letters and speech sounds. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 962-974.



  • Schmidt KE, Castelo-Branco M, Goebel R, Payne BR, Lomber SG, Galuske RA. (2006). Pattern motion selectivity in population responses of area 18. Eur J Neurosci, 24, 2363-2374.
  • Esposito F, Bertolino A, Scarabino T, Latorre V, Blasi G, Popolizio T, Tedeschi G, Cirillo S, Goebel R, Di Salle F. (2006). Inpendent component model of the default-mode brain function: Assessing the impact of active thinking. Brain Res Bull, 70, 263-269.
  • Mohr, H.M., Goebel, R. & Linden, D.E. (2006). Content- and task-specific dissociations of frontal activity during maintenance and manipulation in visual working memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 4465-4471.
  • Schicke, T., Muckli, L., Beer AL, Wibral, M., Singer, W., Goebel, R., Rosler, F & Roeder, B. (2006). Tight covariation of BOLD signal changes and slow ERPs in the parietal cortex in a parametric spatial imagery task with haptic acquisition. European Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 1910-1918.
  • Goebel, R., Esposito, F. & Formisano, E. (2006). Analysis of functional image analysis contest (FIAC) data with Brainvoyager QX: From single-subject to cortically aligned group general linear model analysis and self-organizing group independent component analysis. Human Brain Mapping, 27, 392-401.
  • Kriegeskorte, N., Goebel, R., Bandettini, P. (2006). Information-based functional brain mapping. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 103, 3863-3868.
  • Abler, B., Roebroeck, A., Goebel, R., Hose, A. Schoenfeldt-Lecuona, C., Hole, G., Walter, H. (2006). Investigating directed influences between activated brain areas in a motor-response task using fMRI. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24, 181-185.
  • Bledowski, C., Cohen Kadosh, K., Wibral, M., Rahm, B., Bittner, R.A., Hoechstetter, K., Scherg, M., Maurer, K., Goebel, R., Linden, D.E. (2006). Mental chronometry of working memory retrieval: a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials approach. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 821-829.
  • Muckli L, Kiess S, Tonhausen N, Singer W, Goebel R, Sireteanu R. (2006). Cerebral correlates of impaired grating perception in individual, psychophysically assessed human amblyopes. Vision Research, 46, 506-526.
  • Bles M, Schwarzbach J, De Weerd P, Goebel R, Jansma BM. (2006). Receptive field size-dependent attention effects in simultaneously presented stimulus displays. Neuroimage, 30, 506-511.
  • Esposito F, Di Salle F, Hennel F, Santopaolo O, Herdener M, Scheffler K, Goebel R, Seifritz E. (2006). A multivariate approach for processing magnetization effects in triggered event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging time series. Neuroimage, 30, 136-143.
  • Reithler J, Reithler H, van den Boogert E, Goebel R, van Mier H. (2006). Resistance-based high resolution recording of predefined 2-dimensional pen trajectories in an fMRI setting. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 152, 10-17.
  • Sack AT, Kohler A, Linden DE, Goebel R, Muckli L. (2006) The temporal characteristics of motion processing in hMT/V5+: Combining fMRI and neuronavigated TMS. Neuroimage, 29, 1326-1335.
  • Schiltz, C., Sorger, B., Caldara, R., Ahmed, F., Mayer, E., Goebel, R., Rossion, B. (2006). Impaired face discrimination in acquired prosopagnosia Is associated with abnormal response to individual faces in the right middle fusiform gyrus. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 574-586.



  • Weiskopf N, Scharnowski F, Veit R, Goebel R, Birbaumer N, Mathiak K. (2004). Self-regulation of local brain activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Journal of Physiology Paris. 98, 357-373.
  • Schneider, P., Sluming, V., Roberts, N., Scherg, M., Goebel, R., Specht, H.J., Dosch, H.G., Bleeck, S., Stippich, C., Rupp, A. (2005). Structural and functional asymmetry of lateral Heschl's gyrus reflects pitch perception preference. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 1241-1247.
  • van de Ven, V.G., Formisano, E., Roder, C.H., Prvulovic, D., Bittner, R.A., Dietz, M.G., Hubl, D., Dierks, T., Federspiel, A., Esposito, F., Di Salle, F., Jansma, B., Goebel, R., Linden, D.E. (2005). The spatiotemporal pattern of auditory cortical responses during verbal hallucinations. Neuroimage, 27, 644-655.
  • Dueck, M.H., Petzke, F., Gerbershagen, H.J., Paul, M., Hesselmann, V., Girnus, R., Krug, B., Sorger, B., Goebel, R., Lehrke, R., Sturm,.V, Boerner, U. (2005). Propofol attenuates responses of the auditory cortex to acoustic stimulation in a dose-dependent manner: a FMRI study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 49, 784-791.
  • Kadosh, R.C., Henik, A., Rubinsten, O., Mohr, H., Dori, H., van de Ven, V., Zorzi, M., Hendler, T., Goebel, R., Linden, D.E. (2005). Are numbers special? The comparison systems of the human brain investigated by fMRI. Neuropsychologia, 43, 1238-1248.
  • Sack, A.T., Camprodon, J.A., Pascual-Leone, A. & Goebel, R. (2005). The dynamics of inter-hemispheric compensatory processes in mental imagery. Science, 308, 702-704.
  • Roebroeck, A., Formisano, E., & Goebel, R. (2005). Mapping directed influence over the brain using Granger causality and fMRI, NeuroImage, 25, 230-242.
  • Esposito, F., Scarabino, T., Hyvarinen, A., Himberg, J., Formisano, E., Comani, S., Tedeschi, G., Goebel, R., Seifritz, E. & Di Salle, F. (2005). Independent component analysis of fMRI group studies by self-organizing clustering, NeuroImage, 25, 193-205.
  • Kranczioch, C., Debener, S., Schwarzbach, J., Goebel, R., Engel, A.K. (2005). Neural correlates of visual awareness: implications of the attentional blink. Neuroimage, 24, 704-714.



  • Formisano, E., Esposito, F., Di Salle, F. & Goebel, R. (2004). Cortex-based independent component analysis of fMRI time-series. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 22, 1493-1504.
  • Van Atteveldt, N., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Blomert, L. (2004). Integration of letters and speech sounds in the human brain. Neuron, 43, 271-282.
  • Bledowski, C., Prvulovic, D., Goebel, R., Zanella, F.E., Linden, D.E. (2004). Attentional systems in target and distractor processing: a combined ERP and fMRI study. NeuroImage, 22, 530-540.
  • Bledowski, C., Prvulovic, D., Hoechstetter, K., Scherg, M., Wibral, M., Goebel, R., Linden, D.E. (2004). Localizing P300 generators in visual target and distractor processing: a combined event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of Neuroscience, 24. 9353-9360.
  • Hesselmann V, Sorger B, Lasek K, Guntinas-Lichius O, Krug B, Sturm V, Goebel R, Lackner K (2004). Discriminating the cortical representation sites of tongue and up movement by functional MRI. Brain Topogr, 16, 159-67.
  • Weiskopf, N., Mathiak, K., Bock, S.W., Scharnowski, F., Veit, R., Grodd, W., Goebel, R., Birbaumer, N. (2004) Principles of a brain-computer interface (BCI) based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 51, 966-970.



  • Goebel, R., Roebroeck, A., Kim, D.-S. & Formisano, E. (2003). Investigating directed cortical interactions in time-resolved fMRI data using vector autoregressive modeling and Granger causality mapping. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 21, 1251-1261.
  • Kim, D.-S., Kim, M., Ronen, I., Formisano, E., Kim, K.H., Ugurbil, K., Mori, S. & Goebel, R. (2003). In vivo mapping of functional domains and axonal connectivity in cat visual cortex using magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 21, 1131-1140.
  • Esposito, F., Seifritz, E., Formisano, E., Morrone, R., Scarabino, T., Tedeschi, G., Cirillo, S., Goebel, R. & Di Salle, F. (2003). Real-time independent component analysis of fMRI time-series. NeuroImage, 20, 2209-2224.
  • Linden D.E., Bittner, R.A., Muckli, L., Waltz, J.A., Kriegeskorte, N., Goebel, R., Singer, W. & Munk, M.H. (2003). Cortical capacity constraints for visual working memory: dissociation of fMRI load effects in a fronto-parietal network. NeuroImage, 20, 1518-1530.
  • Formisano, E., Kim, D.-S., Di Salle, F., van de Moortele, P.-F., Ugurbil, K. & Goebel, R. (2003). Mirror-symmetric tonotopic maps in human primary auditory cortex. Neuron, 40, 859-869.
  • Weiskopf, N., Veit, R., Erb, M., Mathiak, K., Grodd, W., Goebel, R. & Birbaumer, N. (2003). Physiological self-regulation of regional brain activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): methodology and exemplary data. NeuroImage, 19, 577-586.
  • Schmidt, K.E., Linden, D.E., Goebel, R., Zanella, F.E., Lanfermann, H. & Zubcov, A.A. (2003). Striatal activation during blepharospasm revealed by fMRI. Neurology, 60, 1738-1743.
  • Formisano, E. & Goebel, R. (2003). Tracking cognitive processes with functional MRI mental chronometry. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 13, 174-181.
  • Kriegeskorte, N., Sorger, B., Naumer, M., Schwarzbach, J., van den Boogert, E., Hussy, W. & Goebel, R. (2003). Human cortical object recognition from a visual motion flowfield. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 1451-1463.



  • Castelo-Branco, M., Formisano, E., Backes, W., Zanella, F., Neuenschwander, S., Singer, W. & Goebel, R. (2002). Activity patterns in human motion-sensitive areas depend on the interpretation of global motion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 99, 13914-13919.
  • Galuske, R.A., Schmidt, K.E., Goebel, R., Lomber, S.G. & Payne, B.R. (2002). The role of feedback in shaping neural representations in cat visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.
  • Prvulovic, D., Hubl, D., Sack, A.T., Melillo, L., Maurer, K., Frolich, L., Lanfermann, H., Zanella, F.E., Goebel, R., Linden, D.E., Dierks, T. (2002). Functional imaging of visuospatial processing in Alzheimer's disease. NeuroImage, 17, 1403-1414.
  • Formisano, E., Linden, D.E.J., Di Salle, F., Trojano, L., Esposito, F., Sack, A.T., Grossi, D., Zanella, F.E. & Goebel, R. (2002). Tracking the mind's image in the brain I: Time-resolved fMRI during visuospatial mental imagery. Neuron, 35, 185-194.
  • Sack, A., Sperling, J.M., Prvulovic, D., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Di Salle, F., Dierks, T. & Linden D.E.J.  (2002). Tracking the mind's image in the brain II: Differential effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right and left parietal lobe. Neuron, 35, 195-204.
  • Munk, M.E., Linden D.E., Muckli, L., Lanfermann, H., Zanella, F.E., Singer, W., & Goebel, R. (2002). Distributed cortical systems in visual short-term memory revealed by event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral Cortex, 12, 866-876.
  • Formisano, E., Esposito, F., Kriegeskorte, N., Tedeschi, G., Di Salle, F. & Goebel, R. (2002). Spatial independent component analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging time-series: characterization of the cortical components. Neurocomputing, 49, 241-254.
  • Esposito, F., Formisano, E., Seifritz, E., Goebel, R., Morrone, R., Tedeschi, G. & Di Salle, F. (2002). Spatial independent component analysis of functional MRI time-series: To what extent do results depend on the algorithm used? Human Brain Mapping, 16, 146-157.
  • Muckli, L, Singer, W., Zanella, F.E. & Goebel, R. (2002). Integration of multiple motion vectors over space: A fMRI study of transparent motion perception. NeuroImage, 14, 843-856.
  • Muckli, L., Kriegeskorte, N., Lanfermann, H., Zanella, F.E., Singer, W. & Goebel, R. (2002). Apparent motion: Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging of perceptual switches and states. J Neurosci, 22, RC219, 1-5.
  • Trojano, L., Grossi, D., Linden, D.E.J., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Cirillo, S., Elefante, R., Di Salle, F. (2002). Coordinate and categorical judgements in spatial imagery. An fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 40, 1666-1674.
  • Sack, A., Hubl, D., Prvulovic, D., Formisano, E., Jandl, M., Zanella, F.E., Maurer, K., Goebel, R., Dierks, T. & Linden, D.E. (2002). The experimental combination of rTMS and fMRI reveals the functional relevance of parietal cortex for visuospatial functions. Cognitive Brain Research, 13, 85-93.



  • Kriegeskorte, N. & Goebel, R. (2001). An efficient algorithm for topologically correct segmentation of the cortical sheet in anatomical MR volumes. NeuroImage, 14, 329-346
  • Vaughan, J.T., Garwood, M., Collins, C.M., Liu, W., DelaBarre, L., Adrainy, G., Andersen, P., Merkle, H., Goebel, R., Smith, M.B. & Ugurbil, K. (2001). 7T vs. 4T: RF power, homogeneity, and signal-to-noise comparison in head images. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 46, 24-30.
  • Goebel, R., Muckli, L., Zanella, F.E., Singer, W. & Stoerig, P. (2001). Sustained extrastriate cortical activation without visual awareness revealed by fMRI studies of hemianopic patients. Vision Research, 41, 1459-1474.
  • Fries, P., Neuenschwander, S., Engel, A.K., Goebel, R. & Singer, W. (2001). Rapid feature selective neuronal synchronization through correlated latency shifting. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 194-200.
  • Kleiser, R, Wittsack, J., Niedeggen, M., Goebel, R & Stoerig, P. (2001). Is V1 necessary for conscious vision in areas of relative cortical blindness? NeuroImage, 13, 654-661.
  • Di Salle, F., Formisano, E., Seifritz, E.,  Linden, D.E.J., Scheffler, K., Saulino, C., Tedeschi, G., Zanella, F.E., Pepino, A., Goebel, R., & Marciano, E. (2001). Functional fields in human auditory cortex revealed by time-resolved fMRI without interference of EPI noise. NeuroImage, 13, 328-338.
  • Brecht, M., Goebel, R., Singer, W. & Engel, A.K. (2001). Synchronization of visual responses in the superior colliculus of awake cats. NeuroReport, 12, 43-47.



  • Castelo-Branco, M., Goebel, R., Neuenschwander, S. & Singer, W. (2000). Neural synchrony correlates with transparency rules constraining visual surface segregation. Nature, 405, 685-689.
  • Kiebel, S., Goebel, R. & Friston, K. (2000). Characterization of functional observations using anatomically informed spatiotemporal basis functions, NeuroImage, 11, 656-667.
  • Trojano, L., Grossi, D., Linden, D.E.J., Formisano, E., Hacker, H., Zanella, F.E., Goebel, R. & Di Salle, F. (2000). Matching two imagined clocks: The functional anatomy of spatial analysis in the absence of visual stimulation. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 473-481.



  • Dierks, T., Linden, D.E.J., Jandl, M., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Lanfermann, H., Singer,W. (1999). Activation of Heschl’s gyrus during auditory hallucinations. Neuron, 22, 615-621.
  • Di Salle, F., Formisano, E., Linden, D., Goebel, R., Bonavita, S., Pepino, A., Smaltino, F. & Tedeschi, G. (1999). Exploring brain function with Magnetic Resonance Imaging. European Journal of Radiology, 30, 84-94.
  • Linden, D.E.J., Kallenbach, U., Heinecke, A., Singer, W., & Goebel, R. (1999). The myth of upright vision. A psychophysical and functional imaging study of adaptation to inverting spectacles. Perception, 28, 469-481.
  • Linden, D.E.J., Prvulovic, D., Formisano, E., Völlinger, M., Zanella, F.E., Goebel, R. and Dierks, T. (1999). The functional neuroanatomy of target detection: An fMRI study of visual and auditory oddball tasks. Cerebral Cortex, 9, 815-823.
  • Dierks, T., Linden, D.E.J, Hertel, A., Günther, T., Lanfermann, H., Niesen, A., Frölich, L., Zanella, F.E., Hör, G., Goebel, R. Maurer, K. (1998). Multimodal imaging of residual function and compensatory resource allocation in cortical atrophy: a case study of parietal lobe function in a patient with Huntingtion’s disease. Psychiatry Research, 84, 27-35.
  • Goebel, R., Khorram-Sefat, D., Muckli, L., Hacker, H. and Singer, W. (1998) The constructive nature of vision: Direct evidence from fMRI studies of apparent motion and motion imagery. The European Journal of Neuroscience, 10, 1563-1573.
  • Goebel, R., Linden, D. E. J., Lanfermann, H., Zanella, F. E. and Singer, W. (1998). Functional imaging of mirror and inverse reading reveals separate coactivated networks for oculomotion and spatial transformations. NeuroReport, 9(4), 713-719.
  • Schmidt, K. E., Goebel, R., Löwel, S., & Singer, W. (1997). The perceptual grouping criterion of colinearity is reflected by anisotropies of connections in primary visual cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 1083-1089.

Book Chapters

  • Goebel, R., Muckli, L. & Kim, D.-S. (2012). The Visual System. In: G. Paxinos & J.K. Mai (Eds.), The Human Nervous System, 3rd Edition. New York: Academic Press.
  • Goebel, R, Esposito, F (2010). The Added Value of EEG-fMRI in Imaging Neuroscience. In Mulert, Christoph, Lemieux, Louis (Eds.), EEG – fMRI: Physiological Basis, Technique, and Applications, Springer.
  • Sorger, B., Reithler, J. & Goebel, R. (2010). Grundlagen hämodynamisch basierter Brain-Computer-Interfaces. In K.H. Pantke (Ed.), Mensch und Maschine: Wie Brain-Computer-Interfaces und andere Innovationen gelähmten Menschen kommunizieren helfen, Frankfurt am Main: Mabuse-Verlag, 55-71.
  • Sorger, B., Reithler, J. & Goebel, R. (2010). Einsatzmöglichkeiten hämodynamisch basierter Brain-Computer-Interfaces für Kommunikation und Umgebungskontrolle. In K.H. Pantke (Ed.), Mensch und Maschine: Wie Brain-Computer-Interfaces und andere Innovationen gelähmten Menschen kommunizieren helfen, Frankfurt am Main: Mabuse-Verlag, 73-89.
  • Goebel, R., De Weerd, P. (2009). Perceptual Filling-in: From Experimental Data to Neural Network Modeling. In: Gazzaniga, M.S., (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences IV. MIT Press.
  • Kaas AL, Stoeckel MC, Goebel R. (2008). The Neural Bases of Haptic Working Memory. In: Martin Grunwald (Ed.). Human haptic perception: basics and applications. Birhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland. ISBN: 978-3-7643-7611-6.
  • Goebel, R. (2007). Localization of brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In: Stippich C (Ed.), Clinical Functional MRI – Presurgical Functional Neuroimaging. Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Formisano, E., F. Di Salle & Goebel R. (2006). Fundamentals of data analysis methods in fMRI. In: Landini L, Positano V, Santarelli M.F. (Eds.) Advanced Image processing in magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Goebel, R. (2005). Chapters 2 (fMRI technical basics) and 3 (fMRI analysis basics) in: Walter H (Ed.) Funktionelle Bildgebung in Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie: Methodische Grundlagen und klinische Anwendungen. Stuttgart: Schattauer.
  • Goebel, R., Roebroeck, A., Kim, D.-S. & Formisano, E. (2004). Directed cortical interactions during dynamic sensory-motor mapping. In: N. Kanwisher & J. Duncan (Eds.), Functional Neuroimaging of Visual Cognition - Attention and Performance XX. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Goebel, R., Muckli, L. & Kim, D.-S. (2003). The Visual System. In: G. Paxinos & J.K. Mai (Eds.), The Human Nervous System, 2nd Edition. New York: Academic Press.
  • Formisano, E., Esposito, F., Di Salle, F. & Goebel, R (2003). Combininig ICA and cortical surface reconstruction in functional MRI investigations of human brain functions, In: Amari S, Cichocki A, Makino S, Murata N (Eds.) ICA 2003, pp.307-312.
  • Goebel, R. & Indefrey, P. (2000). A recurrent network with short-term memory capacity learning the German -s plural. In: J. Murre & P. Broeder (Eds.), Models of Language Acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 177-200.
  • Goebel, R., Muckli, L. and Singer, W. (1999). Motion perception and motion imagery: New evidence of constructive brain processes from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. In: A.D. Frederici & R. Menzel (Eds.), Learning: Rule extraction and representation. Berlin, New York: de Gruyter.
  • Goebel, R. (1999). Einblicke ins Gehirn. In: Jahrbuch des Wissenschaftskollegs zu Berlin.
  • Betz, H., Goebel, R. and Jentsch, Th. (1997) Neurowissenschaften. In: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - Perspektiven der Forschung und ihrer Förderung. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.
  • Goebel, R. (1997). BrainVoyager: Ein Programm zur Analyse und Visualisierung von Magnetresonanztomographiedaten. In T. Plesser, P. Wittenburg (Hrsg.), Forschung und wissenschaftliches Rechnen. Beiträge zum Heinz-Billing-Preis 1996. GWDG-Bericht. Göttingen: Gesellschaft für wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung mbH.
  • Murre, J. & Goebel, R (1996). Connectionist models. In: T. Dijkstra & K. De Smedt (Eds.), Computational Psycholinguistics. London: Taylor & Francis, 49-81.
  • Goebel, R. (1995). Neurolator - Ein Programm zur Simulation neuronaler Netzwerke. In T. Plesser, P. Wittenburg (Hrsg.), Forschung und wissenschaftliches Rechnen. Beiträge zum Heinz-Billing-Preis 1994. GWDG-Bericht Nr. 40. Göttingen: Gesellschaft für wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung mbH, 13-36.
  • Goebel, R. (1995). The role of visual perception, selective attention, and short-term memory for symbol manipulation: A neural network model that learns to evaluate simple LISP expressions. In: K.F. Wender, F. Schmalhofer & H.-D. Boecker (Eds.), Cognition and Computer Programming. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
  • Goebel, R (1994). Synchrone Oszillationen in visuellen Systemen und in neuronalen Netzwerk-Modellen. In: I. Duwe, F. Kurfeß, G. Paaß, G. Palm, H. Ritter & S. Vogel (Hrsg.), Konnektionismus und Neuronale Netze: Beiträge zur HeKoNN94.
  • Goebel, R & Vorberg, D. (1992). Ein Simulationsmodell für das Lösen rekursiver Programmierprobleme. In K. Reiss, M. Reiss, und H. Spandl (Hrsg.). Maschinelles Lernen. Modellierung von Lernen mit Maschinen. Springer Verlag.


Teacher and lecturer at the University of Maastricht, Faculty of Psychology, Department of Neurocognition (40 %): Lectures in the field of Cognitive Neuroscience (Methods, Attention), preparation and execution of trainings in methods of cognitive neuroscience, tutor in student groups according to principles of the problem based learning system of Maastricht University, supervision of student turn papers, master thesis, Ph.D. thesis.

Education Projects

Coordinator and tutor of research master course "Advanced fMRI"

Co-coordinator of research master workshop "Real-time fMRI and Neurofeedback"

Coordinator and tutor of PhD course "Advanced modeling of neuroimaging data"


Extra Activities

CEO of Brain Innovation BV (see http://www.brainvoyager.com/RainerGoebel.html)

CSTO Scannexus (see http://www.scannexus.nl)

Team leader of "Neuroimaging and Neuromodeling" group of the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience (see http://www.herseninstituut.knaw.nl/research_groups/goebel_group )