The diseased organism: Diagnosis and Therapy
Academic year 2012-13
Date last modified
Fac. Health, Medicine and Life Sciences
In this block, knowledge obtained during year 1 and year 2 and block 3.1 is integrated and translated into approaches to treat patients. This involves classical (symptom rather than mechanism based) approaches in which deregulated physiological processes are interfered with and more modern approaches in which the (drug) treatment is directed to selected molecular targets and individuals. In addition some diagnostic methods and imaging techniques are included in the program as a means to detect diseases and to choose and monitor treatments. Due to the limited time, the focus will mainly be on cardiovascular diseases and cancer. As a red line theory will be coupled to practical (clinical) applications. The block involves PBL cases, lectures, (computer and demo) practicals and interactive group assignments/presentations. The block consists of three themes. The first theme (pharmacotherapy of cardiovascular diseases) deals with how drugs can be used to interfere with the cardiovascular system and what one would like to and can achieve with this, the mechanisms of action of major drug classes are and how drugs can be developed for a defined target. The second theme involves imaging techniques as MRI en fluorescence based (particularly confocal and two/multiphoton) microscopy. Next to theoretical principles, practical aspects and (diagnostic and research) applications are discussed. The third theme involves target directed therapies and molecular diagnostics in cancer therapy. This includes the principle behind and the mechanisms of drugs that are directed to specific targets in tumors as well as mechanisms by which tumors can obtain resistance to such drugs. In addition, the use of molecular diagnostics to select the treatment or molecular target is addressed as well as the fact that inter-individual (genetic) differences are important. Finally, a company visit allows introduction into the vision and strategies of companies to amongst others develop, test and market drugs.
Integration and translation of knowledge from previous years and blocks into diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Specific aims The student acquires knowledge of mechanisms of actions of drugs The student acquires knowledge in approaches to develop drugs based on defined drug targets. The student understands the rationale of the pharmacotherapy of cardiovascular diseases and knows the mechanism of action of the major drug classes for these diseases. The student acquires knowledge regarding the rationale and mechanisms involved in target directed anti-tumor therapy. The student acquires knowledge regarding the influence of (DNA) variations between individuals on the effectiveness of drugs. The student understands at which intrinsic and extrinsic cellular levels tumors can become resistant to targeted therapies. The student acquires knowledge in the (molecular) technology in diagnostics and how molecular diagnostics can help to a better and more patient oriented and effective treatment. The student knows the difference between susceptibility genes and disease causing genes. The student understands how MRI images are made and what the basis of this technique is. The student understands the difference between T1, T2 and density weighed MRI images. The student acquires knowledge in the application of MRI in the detection and investigation of diseases. The student knows the technology that forms the basis of fluorescence confocal and two/multiphoton microscopy. The student learns how confocal and multiphoton microscopy can be used to study cellular processes and molecular diagnostics. Skills By giving presentations and writing a report the students will develop and sharpen their skills to work in a cooperative setting, develop a critical attitude to and interpret data and findings, reason and write scientifically.
• Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Betram Katzung, Susan Masters and Anthony Trevor, McGraw-Hill Medical; 12 edition (December 13, 2011) | ISBN: 0071764011 (available online via e-books, UM library). During the block, various references to journal articles will be given.
WORK IN SUBGROUPS
© Maastricht University