Universiteit Maastricht

Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

Publications

Selection of Recent Publications (since 2008); for a more detailed overview, see the individual websites of the researchers. 



The Administrative Governance of European Public Policy-making 

  • Arnold, C.U. (with Franklin, M.N.) (Eds.). (2013). Assessing Political Representation in Europe. Abingdon, Oxon & New York: Routledge.
  • Arnold, C. (with M. Hosli) (2010). The Importance of Actor Cleavages in Negotiating the European Constitution. International Studies Quarterly, 54(3), 615 - 632.
  • Asselt, M.B.A. van, Vos, E. & Rooijackers, B. (2009). Science, knowledge and uncertainty in EU risk regulation. In M. Everson & E. Vos (eds.), Uncertain risks regulated (pp. 359 – 388). Abington: Routledge.
  • Asselt, M.B.A. van (2009). Uncertainty management in integrated regional assessment. In C.G. Knight & J. Jäger (eds), Integrated Regional Assessment of global climate change (pp. 90n – 116). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Asselt, M.B.A. van, Vos, E. & Fox, T. (2010). Regulating technologies and the uncertainty paradox. In M.E.A. Goodwin, B.J. Koops & R. Leenes (eds.), Dimensions of technology regulation (pp. 259 - 284). Wolf legal Publishers.
  • Asselt, M.B.A., van, Klooster, S.A. van‘t Notten, P.W.F van & Smits, L.A. (2010). Foresight in action: Developing policy-oriented scenarios. Earthscan, London, UK.
  • Blom, T., Radulova, E., & Arnold, C. (2008). Theorizing Modes of Governance in the EU: Institutional Design and Informational Complexity. European Governance Papers (EUROGOV), No. C-08-04.
  • Bijsmans, P. (2009). Parlez-Vous Europeen? Europadebat en Communicatiebeleid. Bestuurskunde, 18(2), 43 – 52.
  • Christiansen, T. & Neuhold, C. (2013). Informal Politics in the EU. Journal of Common Market Studies, 51(6), 1196-1206.
  • Christiansen, T. & Neuhold, C. (2010). The International Handbook on Informal Governance. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • Christiansen, T. & Laursen, F. (forthcoming in 2010). EU Treaty Reform and Intergovernmental Conferences. Living Reviews in European Governance.
  • Christiansen, T. (forthcoming 2010). Comitology – Committees in the Enlarged European Union: Administrative Fusion still in Action? In U.Diedrichs, A.Faber, F.Tekin & G.Umbach (eds), Europe Reloaded: Differentiation or Fusion? Festschrift in honour of Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Wessels. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag.
  • Christiansen, T., Oettel, J. & Vaccari, B. (2009). 21st Century Comitology: The Role of Implementation Committees in the Wider European Union. Maastricht: EIPA.
  • Christiansen, T. (2009). The European Commission in the Early 21st Century. In L.Verhey, P.Kiiver & S.Loeffen (eds.), Political Accountability and European Integration. Groningen: Europa Law Publishing.
  • Christiansen, T. & Vanhoonacker, S. (2008). At a critical juncture? Change and continuity in the institutional development of the Council Secretariat. Western European Politics, 31, 751 – 770.
  • Christiansen, T. (with E. Best & P. Settembri). (2008). The Institutions of the Enlarged European Union: Continuity and Change. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • Christiansen, T. & Best. E. (2010). Regionalism in International Affairs. In J.Baylis, S.Smith & P.Owens (eds.), The Globalisation of World Politics 5th ed (pp. 4343 - 449). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Christiansen, T. (2010). The EU Reform Process: From the ‘European Constitution’ to the Lisbon Treaty. In M.Carbone (ed.), National Politics and European Integration: From the Constitution to the Lisbon Treaty (pp. 16 - 33). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • Conzelmann, T. (2010). Neofunktionalismus (Neofunctionalism). In S. Schieder & M. Spindler (eds.), Theorien der Internationalen Beziehungen (pp. 157 - 186). Opladen: Barbara Budrich (3rd edition).
  • Conzelmann, T. & Faust, J. (2009). ”Nord” und ”Süd” im globalen Regieren. Politische Vierteljahresschrift, 50 (2), 203 – 225.
  • Conzelmann, T. (2008). A New Mode of Governing? Multi-level Governance between Cooperation and Conflict. In T. Conzelmann & R. Smith (eds.), Multi-level Governance in the European Union. Taking Stock and Looking Ahead (pp. 11 – 30). Baden-Baden: Nomos.
  • Conzelmann, T. (2008). Beyond the Carrot and the Stick: State Reporting Procedures in the WTO and the OECD. In J. Joachim, B. Reinalda & B. Verbeek (eds.), International Organizations and Implementation (pp. 35 – 47). London, New York: Routledge.
  • Conzelmann, T. (2008). A New Public-Private Divide? Co- and Self-Regulation in the European Union. In B. Kohler-Koch & F. Larat (eds.), Efficient and Democratic Governance in the European Union (Connex Report Series No. 9) (pp. 119 – 150). Mannheim: Mannheimer Zentrum für Europäische Sozialforschung.
  • Groot, de, G.R. & Vink, M. (2008). Meervoudige Nationaliteit in Europees Perspectief: een landenvergelijkend overzicht (ACVZ Voorstudie). Den Haag: Adviescommissie voor Vreemdelingenzaken, 179. [“Multiple Nationality in European Perspective: A Comparative Overview – Study commissioned by Advisory Committee for Aliens Affairs”]
  • Hoogenboezem, J.A. (2010). Kruls, Een Politieke Generaal. Amsterdam: Boom
    Neuhold, C.  & Ruiter, R. de. (2010). Out of REACH? Parliamentary control in the Netherlands and the UK. Journal of Legislative Studies, 57 – 73.
  • Neuhold, C.  & Settembri, P. (2009). Achieving consensus through committees: Does the European Parliament manage? . Journal of Common Market Studies, January  2009, 47(1), 127 – 151.
  • Neuhold, C. (2009). The scrutinizing powers of the European Parliament over Community implementing legislation. In H. Hofmann & A. Tuerk, The Move to an Integrated Administration – Legal Challenges in EU Administrative Law. Cheltenham: Edgar Elgar.
  • Neuhold, C. (2008).  Taming the ‘Trojan Horse’ of Comitology? Accountability issues of Comitology and the Role of the European Parliament. European Integration Online papers (EIoP), 12(1).
  • Radulova, E. (2007). The OMC – an Opaque Method of Consideration or Deliberative Governance in Action? Journal of European Integration, 29 (3), 363 – 380.
  • Reslow, N. (2010). Migration and development? An assessment of recent EU policy initiatives. Journal of Contemporary European Research, 6(1), 3 - 21.
  • Reslow, N. (2010). The Mobility Partnerships. Policy brief prepared for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, the Hague.
  • Schmeets, H. (2010). Increasing Response Rates and the Consequences in the Dutch Parliamentary Election Study 2006. Field Methods, 22(4), 391 - 412.
  • Schmeets, H., (ed.) (2010). Sociale Samenhang: Participatie, Vertrouwen en Integratie. Den Haag/Heerlen: CBS.
  • Spendzharova, A. & Versluis, E. (2013). Issue salience in the European Policy Process: what impact on transposition? Journal of European Public Policy, 20(10), 1499-1516.
  • Spendzharova, A. (2010). Multi-level Governance of Banking Regulation in the EU: Evidence from Developing Bank Supervision in Bulgaria and Hungary. Journal of European Integration, 32(3), 249 – 268.
  • Stephenson, P. (2013). 20 Years of Multi-Level Governance: Where Does It Come From? What Is It? Where Is It Going? Journal of European Public Policy, 20(6), 817-837Stephenson, P. (2010). The Role of Working Groups of Commissioners in Co-ordinating Policy Implementation: The Case of Trans-European Networks (TENs). JCMS 48(3), 709 – 736.
  • Stephenson, P. (2010). Let’s get physical: the European Commission and cultivated spillover in completing the single market’s transport infrastructure. JEPP 17(7), 1038 – 1056.
  • Stephenson, P.J. (2009). Catching the Train to Europe: Executive Control of Policy Formulation inside Spain’s Parliamentary European Union Affairs Committee. South European Society and Politics, 14(3), 317 – 336.
  • Stephenson, P. J. (2009). Hot Under the Collar: Lessons from the 2003 Heatwave in France and the Security Implications for Coping with Environmental Threats in the EU. Journal of Contemporary European Research, 5(2), 293 – 311.
  • Versluis, E., van Keulen, M. & Stephenson, P. (2011). Analyzing the European Union Policy Process. Palgrave MacMillan (European Union Series).
  • Versluis, E., Asselt, M.B.A. van, Fox, T. & Hommels, A. (2010). The EU Seveso regime in practice: From uncertainty blindness to uncertainty tolerance. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 184, 627 - 631.
  • Suvarierol, S., Versluis, E. & Mastenbroek, E. (2010). De Commissie en de agentschappen: een Europese superregering? In A. Van der Vleuten (ed.), De Bestuurlijke Kaart van de Europese Unie. Instellingen, besluitvorming en beleid (pp. 53 - 73). Bussum: Coutinho (2nd edition).
  • Versluis, E., Van Asselt, M., Fox, T. & Hommels, A. (2010). Calculable Risks? An analysis of the European Seveso Regime. In M. Goodwin, B.J. Koops & R. Leenes (eds.), Dimensions of Technology Regulation (pp. 21 – 37). Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers.
  • Versluis, E. (with M. Groenleer & M. Kaeding) (2010). Regulatory Governance through EU Agencies? The Role of the European Agencies for Maritime and Aviation Safety in the Implementation of European Transport Legislation. Journal of European Public Policy.
  • Versluis, E. (with S. Adamini &  H. Maarse) (2010). EU Policymaking on the Tobacco Advertising Ban: Overcoming the Deadlock, Health Economics, Policy and Law.
  • Versluis, E. (with S. Adamini, H. Maarse & D. Light) (2009). Policy Making on Data Exclusivity in the European Union: From Industrial Interests to Legal Realities. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 34(6), 979 – 1010.
  • Versluis, E., Klip, A. & Polak, J. (2009). Improving mutual trust amongst European Union Member States in the areas of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. Lessons from the operation of monitoring, evaluation and inventory mechanisms in the first and third pillars of the European Union. In M. Dane & A. Klip (eds.), An additional evaluation mechanism in the field of EU judicial cooperation in criminal matters to strengthen mutual trust (pp. 99 – 248). Tilburg: Celsus Legal Publishers.
  • Versluis, E. (2008). The Achilles’ heel of European regulation. National administrative styles and the Commission’s neglect of practical implementation. In J. Joachim, B. Reinalda & B. Verbeek (eds.), International Organizations and Policy Implementation. Enforcers, managers, authorities? (pp. 120 – 134).  London: Routledge.
  • Vink, M. & G.R. de Groot (2010). Citizenship Attribution in Western Europe: International Framework and Domestic Trends. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(5), 713 - 734.
  • Vink, M. (2010). European Integration and Domestic Immigration Policies: Convergence, Causality and Counterfactuals. In A. Luedtke (ed.), Migrants and Minorities: the European Response (pp. 37 – 60). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Press.
  • Vink, M. (with Costa Lobo, M. & Lisi, M.) (2010). Mapping the Political Landscape: A Portuguese Vote Advice Application. In L. Cedroni & D. Garzia (eds.), Voting Advice Applications in Europe: The State of the Art (pp. 139 – 166). ScriptaWeb. 
  • Vink, M. (2010). [Review of: Guild, E., Groenendijk, K. & Carrera, S., Illiberal Liberal States: Immigration, Citizenship and Integration in the EU. Publisher: Ashgate, Surrey (2009)]. In: Acta Politica, 45(4), 479 - 499.
  • Vink, M. & Groot, G.R. de (2010). Birthright Citizenship: Trends and Regulations in Europe. Comparative Report, RSCAS/EUDO-CIT-Comp. 2010/8. EUDO Citizenship Observatory, November, 35.
  • Vink, M., ed. (2010). Migration and Citizenship Attribution: Politics and Policies in Western Europe. Special issue of  Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36 (5).
  • Vink, M. and G.R. de Groot (2010). Citizenship Attribution across Europe: International Framework and Domestic Trends. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36(5), 713 – 734.
  • Vink, M. & van Vliet, O. (2009). Not quite crisp, not yet fuzzy? Assessing the potentials and pitfalls of multi-value QCA. Field Methods 21(3), 265 – 289.
  • Vink, M. & Engelmann, C. (2010). Informal Governance in Asylum Politics: European Structures in International Context. In T. Christiansen & C. Neuhold (eds.), International Handbook on Informal Governance. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • Vink, M. (with G.R. De Groot) (2010). Loss of Citizenship: Trends and Regulations in Europe. Comparative Report. RSCAS/EUDO-CIT-Comp. 2010/4. EUDO Citizenship Obervatory.
  • Vink, M. (2010). European Integration and Domestic Immigration Policies: Convergence, Causality and Counterfactuals. In A. Luedtke (ed.), Migrants and Minorities: the European Response (pp. 37 – 60). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Press.
  • Vink, M. (with M. Costa Lobo & M. Lisi) (2010). Mapping the Political Landscape : A Portuguese Vote AdviceApplication. In L. Cedroni & D. Garzia (eds.), Voting Advisors in Europe: Perspectives from Political Science (pp. 139 – 166).
  • Vink, M. (2008) European Citizens and the Constitutional Treaty. In V.B. Malleswari, ed. Citizenship: Contemporary Issues and Developments, Hyderabad, A.P, India: ICFAI University Press (Amicus Books).


The Administrative Governance of Multilateral Foreign Policy


  • Bosse, G. & Schmidt-Felzmann, A. (2010). Guest Editor: The Geopolitics of Energy Security in ‘Wider Europe’. Special Issue, Geopolitics, 16(3)
  • Bosse, G. (2010). The EU’s relations with Moldova: Governance, Partnership or Ignorance? Europe-Asia Studies, 62 (8).
  • Bosse, G. (2010). The EU’s Geopolitical Vision of an European Energy Space: When ‘Gulliver’ Meets ‘White Elephants’ and Babylonian Emperors. Geopolitics, 16 (3).
  • Bosse, G. (2010). The EU’s Role in Georgia: Towards a Coherent Crisis Management Strategy?. In A. Juncos & E. Gross (Ed.), EU Conflict Prevention and Crisis Management: Institutions, Policies and Roles. (Routledge: London).
  • Bosse, G. (2009). The Values/Security Nexus: The Limits of EU Governance in Eastern Europe. Contemporary Politics, 15(2), 215 – 227.
  • Bosse, G. (2009). Changing Belarus? The Limits of EU Governance in Eastern Europe and the Promise of Partnership. Cooperation and Conflict, 44(2), 143 – 65 (with E. Korosteleva).
  • Bosse, G. (2008). Justifying the European Neighbourhood Policy Based on ‘Shared Values’: Can Rhetoric Match Reality? In E. Tulmets & L. Delcour (Ed.), Pioneer Europe? EU Foreign Policy in the Neighbourhood (pp. 43 – 54). Nomos: Baden-Baden.
  • Bosse, G. (2008). The EU’s Neighbourhood Relations with Eastern Europe and Russia: Values, Interests and Future Challenges for EU Foreign Policy. In B. Coskun (Ed.), Neighbourhood Challenge: The European Union and Its Neighbours. Universal Publishers: US.
  • Dijkstra, H. (2010). Explaining variation in the role of the EU Council Secretariat in first and second pillar policy-making. Journal of European Public Policy.
  • Dijkstra, H. (2010). The Military Operation of the EU in Chad and the Central African Republic: Good Policy, Bad Politics. International Peacekeeping, 17(3), 395 - 407.
  • Dijkstra, H. (2009). Commission Versus Council Secretariat: An Analysis of Bureaucratic Rivalry in European Foreign Policy. European Foreign Affairs Review.
  • Dijkstra, H. (2008). The Council Secretariat’s Role in the Common Foreign and Security Policy. European Foreign Affairs Review.
  • Juncos, A. & Pomorska, K. (2013). 'In the face of adversity': Explaining the attitudes of EEAS officials vis-a-vis the new service. Journal of European Public Policy, 20(9), 1332-1349.
  • Noutcheva, G. (2010). [Review of: Laidi, Z. (ed.), EU Foreign Policy in a Globalized World. Normative Power and Social Preferences. Publisher: Routledge (1st edition 2008)]. In: Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 18(1), 138 - 139.
  • Noutcheva, G. (2009). Fake, Partial and Imposed Compliance: The Limits of the EU’s Normative Power in the Western Balkans. Journal of European Public Policy, 16(7), 1065 – 1084.
  • Noutcheva, G. & Bechev, D. (2008). The Successful Laggards: Bulgaria and Romania’s Accession to the EU. East European Politics and Societies, 22(1), 114 – 144.
  • Petrov, P. (with Papadimitriou, D.) (2013). Whose Rule, Whose Law? Contested Statehood, External Leverage and the European Union's Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo. Journal of Common Market Studies, 50(5), 746-763.
  • Petrov, P. (2010). Early Institutionalisation of the ESDP Governance Arrangements: Insights From the Operations Concordia and Artemis. European Integration online Papers (EIoP), 14. Special Issue 1.
  • Petrov, P. (2010). Introducing governance arrangements for EU conflict prevention and crisis management operations: A historical institutionalist perspective. In Gross, E. & Juncos, A.E. (eds.), Making sense of EU conflict prevention and crisis-management policies (pp. 49 - 66). London: Routledge.
  • Petrov, P. (2009). Governing the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP): An institutionalist perspective on the European Union’s military crisis management in the context of operations Concordia (FYROM 2003) and Artemis (DR Congo 2003).
  • Pomorska, K. & Copsey, N. (2010). Poland's Power and Influence in the European Union: the Case of its Eastern Policy. Comparative European Politics, 8(3).
  • Pomorska, K. & Juncos, A. (2010). Secretariat, Facilitator or Policy Entrepreneur? Role perceptions of the officials of the Council Secretariat. European Integration Online Papers, 14.
  • Reslow, N. (2010). Migration and development? An assessment of recent EU policy initiatives. Journal of Contemporary European Research, 6(1), 3 – 21.
  • Strelkov, A. (2010). The silent Europeanization of the post-Soviet space. World Economy and International Relations, 12, 48 - 58.
  • Timus, N. (2010). The Impact of European Democracy Promotion on Party Financing in the East European Neighborhood. European Integration online Papers (EIoP), 14.
  • Vanhoonacker, S. & Pomorska, K. (2013). The European External Action Service and Agenda-setting in European Foreign Policy. Journal of European Public Policy, 20(9), 1316-1331.
  • Vanhoonacker, S. & Jacobs, A. (2010). ESDP and Institutional Change: The Case of Belgium. Security Dialogue, 41(5), 1 - 23.
  • Vanhoonacker, S., Dijkstra, H. & Maurer, H. (eds.) (2010). Understanding the Role of Bureaucracy in the European Security and Defence Policy. European Integration Online Papers, 14, special issue + introduction.
  • Vanhoonacker, S., Dijkstra, H. & Maurer, H. (2010). Understanding the Role of Bureaucracy in the European Security and Defence Policy: The State of the Art. European Integration Online Papers, 14, 1 - 33.
  • Vanhoonacker, S. & Reslow, N. (2010). The European External Action Service: Living Forwards by Understanding Backwards. European Foreign Affairs Review, 15(1), 1 - 18.
  • Vanhoonacker, S., Pomorska, K. & Maurer, H. (2010). The Council Presidency and European Foreign Policy – Challenges for Poland in 2011. Warsaw: Center for International Relations).
  • Vanhoonacker, S. & Shackleton, M. (eds.) (2010). Europe and its citizens: Mind the Gap. Maastricht Monnet Lecture Series Two. PDF
  • Vanhoonacker, S., Dijkstra, H., Maurer, H., Petrov, P. & Pomorska, K. (2009). Understanding the role of the administrative level in ESDP – Towards a new research agenda. CFSP Forum, 7(2), 14 – 17.
  • Vanhoonacker, S. & Shackleton, M. (eds.). The EU institutions beyond Lisbon Future Challenges. Maastricht Monnet Lecture Series One. PDF
  • Vanhoonacker, S. et al. (2009). Understanding the role of the administrative level in ESDP – Towards a new research agenda. CFSP Forum, 7(2), 14 – 17.
  • Vanhoonacker, S. (2008). The European Security and Defence Policy and coherence challenges in the Council. In S. Blockmans (Ed.), The European Union and Crisis Management: Policy and Legal Aspects (pp. 145 – 156). The Hague/Cambridge: T.M.C. Asser Press/ Cambridge University Press.


Administrative Governance in a Historical Perspective



  • Germond, C. (2012). Franco-German Dynamic Duos: Giscard-Schmidt and Mitterrand-Kohl, in: Anand Menon, Erik Jones, Stephen Weatherill (Eds.). The Oxford Handbook of the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press (forthcoming).
  • Germond, C., Seidel, K. & Spoerer, M. (eds.) (2010). Ambitions and Reality of the Common Agricultural Policy: Historical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Journal of European Integration History (special issue), 2 (16).
  • Germond, C. (2010). The Agricultural Bone of Contention: The Franco-German Tandem and the Making of the CAP, 1963-1966. Journal of European Integration History, 16(2), 179 - 198.
  • Germond, C. (2010). A "Cordial Potentiality"? Charles de Gaulle and the Franco-German Partnership. In A. Locher, G. Martin & C. Nuenlist (eds.), Globalizing de Gaulle: International Perspectives on French Foreign Policies (pp. 43 - 62). Harvard Cold War Book Series, Rowman & Litlefield: Lanham.
  • Germond, C. (2010). Defending the Status Quo: Agricultural Interest Groups and the Challenges of Overproduction. Comparativ. Zeitschrift für Globalgeschichte und vergleichende Gesellschaftsforschung, 20(4), 62 - 82.
  • Germond, C. (2010). Charles de Gaulle and the Grand Coalition‘s Ostpolitik, 1966-1969. Francia. Forschungen zur westeuropaeischen Geschichte, 37, 237 - 258.
  • Germond, C; (2009). The End of the Cold War and the Unification of the European Continent, in: Klaus Larres (Ed.), A Companion to Europe Since 1945, London, Blackwell,  208-227
  • Germond, C. (2009), Un traité mort-né ? Les relations institutionnelles franco-allemandes de 1963 à 1969. Libera, M./Wassenberg, B. (Dir.), L’Europe au cœur - Etudes pour Marie-Thérèse Bitsch. Bruxelles: Peter Lang, 117-140.
  • Germond, C./Türk, H. (eds.) (2008). A History of Franco-German Relations in Europe: From “Hereditary Enemies” to Partners. New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2008.
  • Leonards, C. & Randeraad, N. (forthcoming). Building a transnational network in the 19th century: Work and Social Reform in a European Perspective. In D. Rodogno, B. Struck & J. Vogel (eds), Shaping the Transnational Sphere (c. 1850-1930). Oxford/New York: Berghahn Books.
  • Leonards, C. & Randeraad, N. (2010). Transnational Experts in Social Reform, 1840-1880. International Review of Social History 55(2), 215 – 239.
  • Randeraad, N. (2010). States and Statistics in the Nineteenth Century. Europe by Numbers. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Randeraad, N. (2011). The International Statistical Congress (1853-1876): Knowledge transfers and their limits. European History Quarterly 41 (1).
  • Randeraad, N. (2008). Politiche pubbliche e totalitarismi. Le sfide delle amministrazione negli anni Trenta. In G. Melis (ed.), Lo Stato negli anni Trenta. Istituzioni e regimi fascisti in Europa (pp. 109 – 119). Bologna: Il Mulino.
  • Randeraad, N. (2008). De statistische reizen van Jan Ackersdijck. De Negentiende Eeuw 32(1), 15 – 26.
  • Rulof, B. (2010). Un Préfet tiraillé entre l’Empire et la Monarchie : Joseph-Victor Aubernon. Mémoire sur les événements qui ont eu lieu dans l’Hérault pendant les années 1814-1815. Études héraultaises, 40, 107 - 128.